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test 2

What is different about hominoidea locomation when compared to monkeys

all hominoideas have hand derived forms of locomotion

What kind of locomotion do these use

gibbons
orangutangs
gorilla
human

gibbons-true brachiation
orangutangs- quadrumanous
gorilla-knuckle walking
human-bipedal

Why might gibbons and siamangs perform vocal duets?

Territory: the portion of the range that is actively defended against incursion by con-specifics (reinforce spacing between different groups)

Does true monogamy characterize gibbons

no because adult membership changes regularly as a result of death, mate desertion, or displacement

What type of social group characterizes the orangutan? Why is this?

solitary but social. Because they are tied to their feeding ecology

What is the function of a male orangutan's long calls?

may serve as spacing mechanism and as advertisement for receptive females

How do different populations of chimpanzees differ in their hunting strategies?

*Thai forest: coordinated hunts (hunt red colobus)

*Gombe: disorganized hunts (hunt red colobus but also, bushpig, bush back and baboons)

What family do gibbons belong to

hilobatidae

What social group do gibbons have

gibbons have pairbonded groups that comprise of 2 adults and 1-3 offspring

How do bonobos diffuse aggression

Sex

a Pan panisus is a

bonobo

a Pan troglodytes is a

cimpanzee

what family do chimpanzees and bonovos belong to

hominidae

Compare chimpanzees and bonobos in terms of their social organization

chimps:
1 male philopatric
2 female transfer, establish initial relationships with males
3 male dominance and strong male bonds

Bonobos:
1 male philopatric
2 female transfer, establish initial onds with dominant female
3 females are co-dominant or dominent females from the core

Compare chimpanzees and bonobos in terms of their behavioral differences

Chimps:
1 more territorial
2 often more aggressive

Bonobos:
1. peaceful with neighbors
2. sex to diffuse aggression

Describe the primate biomes

major primate biomes of the earth are tropical and located in central and south America/Africa and asia

what are tropical rainforest characteristics

100 inches of rainfall per yr, most plant species are ever green, rainfall and temperature fairly even throughout the year

describe the canopy layer

connected canopy creates an arboreal highway for primates to move through looking for resources

describe the understory layer

darker more humid environment no consististent layer, more difficult to move

describe the forest floor

darkest layer cooler temperature

describe the emergent layer

peak above the canopy layer

What are the different ways that seeds
are dispersed

primate seed swallowing, seed spitting, and seed predation

what happens when a tree is cut down

1. Wipe out many micro habitats
2. Sunlight comes in and dries out forest floor

What is Leibig's law of minimum

•Factors that are limited in supply will limit the size of the population and may affect behavior and other adaptations
Ex. Howler monkeys try new plants that are toxic

What are some characteristics of a seasonal tropical forest?

•Stratification of forest is greatly reduced and trees are further apart with few continuous canopies
•A higher frequency of deciduous trees
•More seasonal rainfall and thus influences food resources are more limited

What are some challenges primates might face in the seasonal tropical forest

•Locomotor challenges:
Stratification reduced and trees further apart with few continuous canopies
•Dietary challenges:
More seasonal food
•Predators again pose a threat
Harrier hawk

What are the characteristics of a tropical savanna?

•Trees are present but sparsely distributed
•Limited rainfall

What are some challenges primates might face in the tropical savanna

•Challenges:
Sleeping sites
Seasonal foods
Acacia trees have large thorns and ants (Difficult to procure)
Many predators

Describe a semi-desert scrub biome. What are some major challenges to primates? and what primate species inhabits this area

•Very challenging
•Rain falls only during a short wet season if it falls at all
•Variable temperature
•No major trees, very barren
•Challenges:
Sleeping sites
Cliff faces-limit how far one can travel during the day
Predators
Food and water
• Hamadryas baboons

What are the nutritional requirements of primates? What must all animals have,
including primates, to keep them healthy?

source of energy (carbs and fats)

ability to maintain, repair, and build tissure (Proteein)

regulate body process (vitamins and minerals)

How do primates meet the needs for carbs

fruits
tree saps (exudates)

How do primates meet the needs for proteins

veribrates
invertibrates
leaves and flowers

How do primates meet the needs for vitamins and minerals

fruit
minerals (geophagy)

why cant primates eat just leaves for their protein source

secondary compounds (could be poisonous)
lots of fiber, which means lots of work
flowers are highly seasonal

why not just eat insects or animal protein

costly to find
do not provide a large amount of food

Why is a banana a high quality food

because it has concentrated energy and its low in fiber (easy to digest)

What are some ecological constraints on primate feeding behavior?

1. primates must seek out complimentary foods to meet their daily requirements
2. chemical defenses of potential food items (secondary compounds)
3. fiber content
4. limited availability
5. incomplete nutrition
6. distribution of foods: major factor in how primates more around.

How is body size important in foraging strategies?

the bigger you are you can eat a lot of crappy food and the smaller you are the more higher quality food you want but still cant eat as much as bigger folks

How does BMR (basal metabolic rate) relate to body size? Provide some examples

BMR does not scale directly with body size it scales to the power of .75
this means that as body size goes up BMR goes down and as bodysize goes down BMR goes up

How might the gut morphology look of a primate that concentrates on leaves as a
main dietary resource? Gums? Fruit? Insects

LEAVES= Enlarged gut-either stomach or cecum (sacculated stomach)
GUMS=long cecum
FRUIT=long small intestines
INSECTS= short simple gut

Compare and contrast spider monkeys and howler monkeys in terms of diet, day
range, weight, and digestive features.

SPIDER:
fruit 72% Leaves 22%
Flowers 6% Weight 6-8kg
Brainsize 107g Day range 915m

Howler:
fruit 42% Leaves 48%
Flowers 10% Weight 6-8kg
Brainsize 50.3g Day range 915m

What kind of a diet are humans adapted for

high quality diet rich in foods such as fruits, oil rich seeds, insects, and vertebrate prey

What are there differences
between males and females in mortality rates?

♣In general, male primates suffer higher mortality rates than females

What is anthropogenic change

•the effects or processes derived from human activity

What are some behavioral examples of how primates may avoid or decrease the
likelihood of disease transmission?

♣Hamadryas baboons and waterborne disease
• Drink water filtered by sand
♣Millipedes: cebus and eulemur
• Rub millipede juice on them as bug repellent
♣Anting in cebus
• Rub fur with carpenter ants to repel tics

What are the sex differences in ectoparasite number among ring tailed lemurs? What
is a possible explanation for this?

Mean number of ectoparasites per individual:
•Males 7.18
•Females:4.65

•Females have extended matrilines, so have more grooming partners
•Males disperse. When enter a new group do not have a lot of friends to groom them

How do primates respond to predation?

♥Avoidance/flight:
♣ Remove yourself from a particular area
♥Vigilance:
♣ Look around for predators
♥Form large groups/mixed species associations
♥Predator detected...
♣ Alarm calls
♣ Seek confrontation

What are some examples of polyspecific associations? Why do primates form these
groups?

•Periods when two different species move and rest together as one group
Increased access to foods
Enhanced predator detection-more eyes and ears
Larger group, lowers the chances that any single individual will be preyed upon
Increased predator defense through mobbing and confusion effects

How are anti-predator behaviors affected by body size?

Small primates: < 1kg
♣Concealment/camouflage (aye aye facial patttern)
♣Vigilance (foraging by themselves)
♣Avoidance/flight
Larger primates: >1 kg
♣Mobbing the predator
♣Direct attacks
♣Flight

How does the environment affect social behavior?

Predators
•Group calls
Temperature
•Gathering together and huddling for warmth
Foraging
•Can protect resources from other groups
Conspecific threats
•Other members can help you when another of your species is picking on you

What are the different types of primate social groups?

♥One adult: Noyau—solitary but social e.x. galagos, orangutans
♥One male reproductive group: polygyny (ex. Gorilla, hamadryas baboons, black and white colobus)
♥One female reproductive groups: polyandry (ex. callitrichidae)
♥One male one female: monogamous (ex. Indri, gibbon)
♥Multimale-multifemale (ex. Baboons, macaques, chimps, brown lemurs)

Why do some primates form large groups with many females living together with one
or more males?

•Collective rearing of offspring, especially among related females
•Grooming
•Predator protection
•Resource defense access to mates

what are the costs to group living?

•Feeding competition over access to resources
•Increased cost of movement
•Increased transmission of disease and parasite

What is the ideal system for females

♣Ideal system for females: exclude all males (reducing feeding competition); seek out males only when reproductive

What is the ideal system for males

♣Ideal system for males: exclude other males; be the only reproductive male in a one-male group

What important "services" do males provide females?

Predator protection
Infanticide protection
Protection against other females and or males
Grooming partners

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