There are one million nephrons in each _____.
The ____ system consist of glands and hormones.
The ____ system consist of glands that have ducts.
"All is change; Only change is changeless"
Hera Clitis 4 B.C.
The ____ is used by humans to try & make sense of the world.
____ are molecules that contain carbon.
All organic molecules are ____. They are long chains like strings of beads made of smaller chains made of subunits called monomers.
All organic molecules are polymers. They are long chains like strings of beads made of smaller chains made of subunits called _____.
All organic molecules are polymers. They are long chains like strings of beads made of smaller chains made of subunits called monomers. They are linked by _____. Some polymers are carbohydrates which are built as sugars, lipids which are composed of fatty acids, proteins which are composed of amino acids & nucleic acids which are composed of nucleotides.
____ is composed of sugars called saccharides.
____ contain carbon, hydrogen & oxygen in the ration of 1:2:1 such as CH2O.
____ is the primary energy storage molecules in most living things.
What are the major classes of organic molecules?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acid
____ is the structural unit of living cells.
____ is the most common organic compound in the biosphere.
____ are formed from small molecules of sugar.
What are the principal kinds of carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
____- ribos which are RNA & glucose (universal cellular fuel)
____- starch, wood & other biological material
These monosaccharides both have the same chemical formula, C6H1206, but have different properties because the arrangement of the atoms are different.
Glucose & Fructose
This disaccharide is formed by the combination of glucose and fructose.
Sucrose or Table Sugar
This disaccharide, milk sugar or lactose, is what?
Glucose & Galactose
This disaccharide is two glucose units.
Trehalose or Insect Sugar
____ store energy or provide structural support.
____- starch & glucose
____- molecular storage bins
This polysaccharide is animal starch but is also found in a tree in Hawaii that consists of 12-18 glucose units found in the muscles & in the liver as glucogon.
This polysaccharide, glycogen, is animal starch but is also found in a tree in Hawaii that consists of 12-18 glucose units found in the muscles & in the liver as ____.
This polysaccharide stimulates the liver to hydrolize glycogon which is released into the blood.
This polysaccharide is produced by the pancreas & stored in the liver.
This polysaccharide consists of 2000 glucose units.
This polysaccharide gives firmness & rigidity to cell walls in plants.
This polysaccharide contains 1/2 of the organic carbon in the biosphere.
This polysaccharide makes up 50% of wood and almost 100% of cotton.
This polysaccharide is used by cows, ruminants (cud chewers), cockroaches & termites for energy because they have microscopic organisms located in their digestive tracks.
____ is the principal food storage in most plants.
A substance called ___ is the major component of the exo-skeleton of arthropods (joined feet) such as crawfish, shrimp & crabs, etc.
____ is also found in the cell walls of a lot of fungi.
900,000 species can synthesize ____.
____ are insoluble in polar solvents but dissolve easily in non-polar organic substances.
____ function in energy storage molecules.
____ plays a major role as chemical messengers within & between cells.
____ provide waterproof covering around the cells.
Fats are a type of what organic molecule?
Oils are a type of what organic molecule?
Waxes, which form a protective covering for skin, fur & feathers, also on leaves and exoskeleton of insects, are a type of what organic molecule?
____ are one the major components of the cell membranes.
Vitamins, hormones & cholesterol are examples of what?
____ contain more chemical energy than carbohydrates because they are non-polar and do not attract water molecules.
____ store 6 times as much energy in comparison to glycogen.
Fats & oils are a hydro-carbon chain with a _____ (COOH).
Terminal Carboxyl Group
Fat molecules are called ___ because of the presence of glycerol molecules.
____ is a very important compound because it is a three carbon group with three alcohols.
What are the categories of fatty acids that are called triglycerides?
Saturated, Unsaturated, Glycolipids
This type of triglyceride has no double bonds.
Saturated Fatty Acids
This type of triglyceride is found on lard.
Saturated Fatty Acids
This type of triglyceride has one or more double bonds.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
This type of triglyceride is an oil.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
This type of triglyceride is an important part of the cell membrane.
This type of triglyceride consist of 1 to 15 monosaccharides.
____ include cholesterol, vitamins, hormones, which include sex hormones, testosterone, estrogen & progesterone (produced by the corpus luteum).
____ make up 50% or more of the dry weight of living systems.
Plants are less than 1/2 ____.
____ includes enzymes.
____ includes regulatory such as hormones.
____ storage such as eggwhite & seed protein.
Proteins transport such as ____.
_____ contractile such as make muscles contract.
_____- structural such as collagen
____ are protective such as antibodies (immunoglobulin).
____ are the key to life's diversity.
The shapes & functions of cells depend on different types of ____.
The building blocks of protein are called ____.
What are the building blocks of amino acids?
Amine Group (weak acid), Carboxyl Group (weak acid), Radical
All living organisms contain the same 20 ____.
Amino acids are joined by ____ which means they share electrons.
Amino acids link together to form ____.
Whenever the amino acids join head to tail, they lose a ____ to form the bonds.
_____ of a protein is a linear sequence of amino acids.
_____ of a protein are regular repeated configurations.
A ____ of a protein is caused by the hydrogen bonding of the peptides.
____ of a protein is a three dimensional representation of proteins which result from interactions of the radical group. They are all called globular because they are folded & look like globs.
____ is the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.
____ provides strength, flexibility & shape to skin, hair, bones & cartilage.
In ____ structure of a protein, there may be as many as 600 amino acids in one molecule.
An example of ____ would be... Hemoglobin combines loosely with oxygen collected in the lungs & distributes it in the body by the blood. Hemoglobin consists of 4 polypeptide chain combined with heme which contains iron.
____ encode & transmit information which produces the various proteins in the DNA molecule.
Nucleic acids are composed of monomers called _____.
___ are much more complex than amino acids.
What are the sub-units contained by nucleotides?
Phosphate, Sugar-Pentose, Nitrogenous Base
What are the different kinds of nucleic acid?
DNA, RNA, Adenosine Phosphates
This type of nucleic acid are chemical messengers within & between cells.
___ is energy produced by the mitochondria.