percentage of hematocrits in males and in females
males: 45% plus or minus 5%, females: 42% plus or minus 5%
Oxygen rich blood, and oxygen poor blood, is what colors?
Oxygen rich: Scarlet, Oxygen poor: dark red
Distribution functions of blood
Transports oxygen from lungs, nutrients from digestive tract to all body cells. Transports metabolic waste products from cells to elimination sites (lungs-carbon dioxide, kidneys-nitrogenous wasts in urine). Transports hormones from the endocrine organs to their target organs.
Regulatory functions of blood:
Maintaining normal body temperature; maintaining normal pH in body tissues through buffers that prevent excessive or abrupt changes in blood pH, which could jeopardize normal cellular activities, and maintains adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system.
Protective functions of blood:
1. prevent blood loss by forming platelets and plasma protein to initiate clot formation. 2. Prevent infection by antibodies, complement proteins and WBC, all of which help defend against foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses.
straw-colored, sticky fluid, containing over 100 differnet dissolved solutes: nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes and products of cell activity, ions, and proteins.
most abundant, contribute to osmotic pressure, maintaining water balance in blood and tissues.
most abundant plasma protein, 60% of the total protein, made by the liver, plays an important role in osmotic balance, contributes to the viscosity of blood, transportation of lipids/hormones/calcium, helps to maintain pH.
36% of plasma proteins
Alpha, beta- produced by liver, mostly transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, and fat-soluable vitamins.
gamma-antibodies released by by plasma cells during immune response.
nonprotein nitrogenous substances
by-products of cellular metabolism, such as urea, uric acid, creatinine, and ammonium salts
materials absorbed from digestive tract and transported for use throughout body; include glucose & other simple carbs, amino acids (digestion products of protein), fatty acids, glycerol, and triglycerides (fat products), cholesterol, and vitamins
Cations include: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and anions include: chloride, phosphate, sulfate, bicarbonate; all of which help maintain osmotic pressure and normal blood pH.
Protein found in RBCs that cause their characteristic biconclave shape; connects proteins in the plasma membrane with actin in the cytoskeleton
characteristics of an erythrocyte:
1-biconcave shape and small size. Since no area within cytoplasm is far from the surface, the biconcave disc shape is ideal for gas exchange. 2-not counting water content, and erythrocyte is 97% hemoglobin, the molecule that binds to and trasports respiratory gases. 3-erythrocytes lack a mitchiondria and generate ATP by anaerobic mechansims, making them perfect oxygen transporters since they dont consume any of the oxygen.
Globin consists of how many polypeptide chains?
four. two alpha and two beta, each bound to a ringlike heme group.
How many oxygen molecules can a hemoglobin molecule transport?
since each iron molecule can combine reversibly with one molecule of oxygen, a hemoglobin can transport four molecules of oxygen.
Why is hemoglobin contained in erythrocytes?
1-prevents it from breaking into fragments that would leak into the bloodstream, 2-prevents it from contributing to blood viscosity and osmotic pressure.
the bright red hemoglobin that is a combination of hemoglobin and oxygen from the lungs. Gets 3-dimensional shape and turns ruby red.
In tissues, oxygen detaches from iron, hemoglobin resumes original shape. Blood becomes dark red. The oxygen diffuses from the blood and into the tissue fluid, then into the tissue cells.
hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis
the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the red bone marrow)
Red bone marrow
soft network of reticular connective tissue borderinf wide blood capillaries called blood sinusoids.
hematopoietic stem cell or hemocytoblast
Red bone marrow cell; gives rise to many types of blood cells
late erythroblast (cycle)
Phase 3 of red blood cell cycle-hemoglobin synthesis and iron accumulation occur.
Phase 4 of red blood cell cycle- Once a normoblast has accumulated its hemoglobin, it ejects the organelles, collapses inward, and becomes a concave reticulocyte.
Phase 5 of red blood cell cycle-Immature erythrocyte with a network of strands (reticulum).
Glycoprotein Hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell formation
When certain kidney cells become hypoxic (inadequate oxygen), they:
accelerate their release of erythropoietin.
The drop in normal blood oxygen levels that triggers EPO formation, can reult from: 1-3
1-reduced numbers of red blood cells due to hemorrahge or excessive RBC destruction.
2- Insufficient hemoglobin/RBC (iron deficiency)
3- Reduced availability of oxygen, as occurs at high altitudes.
Too many erythropoiesis or excessive amounts of oxygen in the bloodstream, does what?
depresses erythropoietin production.
T/F: It is not the number of erythrocytes in the blood that controls the rate of erythropoiesis. Control i sbased on their ability to transport enough oxygen to meet tissue demands.
iron storage protein (aggregated ferritin); some iron is stored in this form, when iron storage is high
"Red blood cell graveyard" refers to what?
After 100-120 days, the red blood cell becomes trapped and fragment in smaller circulatory channels, particularly in the spleen. The spleen is sometimes called the "red blood cell graveyard".
When the heme of their hemoglobin is split off from globin, what happens to the heme group?
The balance of the heme group is degraded to bilirubin
What happens to the core of iron salvaged from the hemoglobin?
It is bound to protein as ferritin or hemosiderin and stored for reuse.
Once bilirubin is picked up by liver cells, it in turn secretes as bile into the intestine, where its metabolized as urobilinogen.
the protein globin, part of hemoglobin, is metabolized or broken down to:
Amino acids, which are released to the circulation.
a condition in which the blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity.It is a sign of a disorder, rather than a disease.
Hemorrhagic anemias are:
result from blood loss. Acute hemorrhagic anemia, blood loss is rapid, like in a stab wound. Blood replacement is treatment. Slight but persistent blood loss (ulcers or hemorrhoids), causes chronic hemorrhagic anemia. Primary problem needs to be resolved to replace defiecient blood cells.
Hemolytic anemia is:
erythrocytes rupture, or lyse, prematurely.hemoglobin abnormalities, transfusion of mismatched blood, and certain bacterial/parasitic infections can be causes.
Aplastic anemia is:
may result from destruction or inhibition of red marrow by certain drugs, chemicals, ionizing radiation, or viruses. Usually cause is unknown.Defects in blood clotting and in immunity are present.
Low hemoglobin content is:
when hemoglobin molecules are normal, but erythrocytes contain fewer that the usual number, a nutritional anemia is always suspected.
Iron-deficiency anemia is
a secondary result of hemorrhagic anemias, but it also results from inadequate intake of iron-containing foods and impaired iron absorption. Erythrocytes produced are small and pale, called microcytes.
when athletes who exercise vigorously test positive for an iron- deficiency even though they really dont. Once they presume noral levels of activity, their blood components return to normal.
a substance produced by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12
usually genetic, serious, & incurable- in thalassemia & sickle-cell the globin part of hemoglobin is abnormal;RBCs are fragile & rupture early
seen in mediterranean ancestry. one of the globin chains is absent or faulty, and erythrocytesare thin, delicate, and deficient in hemglobin.
Sickle cell anemia-
abnormal hemoglobin. hemoglobin S (HbS), results from a change in just one of the 287 amiono acids in a beta chain of the globin molecule. This causes the beta chains to stick together under low oxygen conditions, forming stiff rods so that hemoglobin S becomes spiky and sharp. Cresent shape RBCs.
an abnormal excess of Erythrocytes that increases blood viscosity, causing it to sludge, or flow sluggishly.
Polycythemia vera is:
a bone marrow cancer, characterized by dizziness and an exceptionally high RBC count. hematocrit may be as high as 80%, and blood volume may double.
result when less oxygen is available or EPO production increases. Blood dilation is treatment. To remove some blood and replacing it with saline.
practiced by some athletes.The practice of illicitly boosting the number of red blood cells, which transport oxygen, to enhance athletic performance
Leukocytes or White blood cells (WBC) are:
the only formed elements that aew complete cells, with nuclei and the usual organelles.
process where WBCs are able to slip out of the capillary blood vessels, and circulate their way to areas of the body where they are needed for inflammatory or immune reponses.
following the chemical trail of molecules released by damaged cells or other leukocytes.
Leukocytes listed from most abundant to least abundant. Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas. (N,L,M,E,B) means:
Most to least abundant Leukocytes: N-Neutrophils, L-Lymphocytes, M-Monocytes, E-Eosinophils, B-Basophils.
Name two major categories leukocytes are put into, based on their structural and chemical characteristics:
Granulocytes-contain obvious membrane-bound cytoplasmic granules.
Agranulocytes-lack obvious granules.
accounting for 50-70% of WBCs. The most abundant type of white blood cell. Neutrophils are phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days. Neutrophils are our bodys bacteria slayers.
Also called polys. Consist of three to six lobes because of nuclear variablility.
oxygen is metabolized to produce a potent germ killer oxidizing substances such as bleach and hydrogen peroxide. Defensin-mediated lysis occurs.
they lead counterattack against parasitic worms, such as flatworms (tapeworms and flukes) and roundworms (pinworms and hookworms) that are too large to be phagocytized.
2nd most numerous leukocyte in the blood., only a small protion of them is found in the bloodstream. Play a crucial role in immunity.
T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections
What is a monocyte?
Once they leave the bloodstream and enter the tissues, they turn into highly mobile macrphages with huge appetites. Macrophages are important in activating lymphocytes to mount the immune response.
Chemical messengers that act either as paracrines or hormones, are glycoproteins that fall into two families hematopoietic factors:
1-interleukins, 2-colony-stimulating factors or CSFs
lymphoid stem cells
begin their development in red bone marrow but complete it in lymphatic tissues; they give rise to lymphocytes.
myeloid stem cells
begin their development in red bone marrow and give rise to red blood cells, platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
Precursor of granulocyte: ____ are more abundant cytoplasm, more primary granules, nucleoli are still
Right after promyelocytes. This is point at which specific granules appear. You can determine the type of cell it is at this point. Then cell division stops
An immature neutrophil with a nucleus in the shape of a band; also called a stab cell. Band cell counts are used to trace infections and other diseases.
a cell arising from a monoblast, leaving the bone marrow and developing into a monocyte.
once known as the kissing disease, its a highly contagious viral disease most often seen in young adults. Caused by the epstein barr virus, excessive number of agranulocytes, many are atypical.
not cells. They are cytoplasmic fragmentsof very large cells called megakaryocytes. Platelets are essential for the clotting process that occurs in plasma when blood vessels are ruptured or their lining is injured.
How does blood loss stop?
fibrous tissue grows into the clot and seals the hole in the blood vessel.
Name 3 triggers of vascular spasms.
1-direct injury to vascular smooth muscle, 2-chemicals released by endothelial cells and platelets, 3-reflexes inititated by local pain receptors.
von willebrand factor (VWF)
plasma protein secreted by endothelial cells; facilitates adherence of platelets to the collagen fibers and undergo amazing changes, such as they swell, spike, and become sticky.
Serotonin effects at an open wound
granules begin to breakdown and release, serotonin to enhance the vascular spasm.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) at an open wound
Attract more platelets to the area and causethem to release their contents.
Thromboxane A2 at an open wound
short lived prostaglandin derivative, that is generated and released, stimulating both serotonin amd ADP events.
prostaglandin produced by intact endothelial cells that is a strong inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Once reinforced with fibrin threads (molecular glue) the platelets are quite effective in sealing the small tears in blood vessels.
blood is transformed froma liquid to a gel, in a multistep process that leads to the last three phases.
Coagulation process: 1-3
1-complex substance called prothrombin activator is formed, 2-Prothrombin activator converts a plasma protein called prothrombin into thrombin (an enzyme), 3-thrombin catalyzes the joining of fibrinogen molecules in plams to a fibrin mesh, which traps blood cells and seal the hole until it can be permanently repaired.
Name 3 Phases to Prothrombin Activity
Phase 1-clotting is either by intrinsic or extrinsic pathway. Both are usually triggered by the same tissue damaging events. Phase 2-Prothrombin activator catalyzes the transformation of the plasma protein prothrombin to the active enzyme thrombin. Phase 3- Thrombin catalyzes the plymerization of fibrinogen. These long, hairlike insoluable fibrinogen molecules align, and act as the glue that keeps the platelets together, making the structural basis of the clot. In the presence of fibrin, plasma becomes gel-like and traps any formed elements that try to pass through it.
Factor XIII (fibrin stabilizing factor)
cross-linking enzyme that binds the fibrin strands together and strengthens and stabilizes the clot.
Which is more rapid pathway? Why? Extrinsic or Intrinsic.
Extrensic. Because it involves fewer steps. Even in severe trauma it can produce a clot formation within 15 min.
Tightening of the fibrin clot. Platelets contain actin and myosin (muscle proteins) which contract and pull the edges of the wound closer together. Occurs over 30-60 minutes after clotting.
Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)
released by platelet degranulation, stimulates smooth muscle cells and and fibroblasts to divide and rebuild the wall.
Name two major disorders of hemostasis:
1- Thromboembolic disorders-conditions that cause undesirable clot formation, 2- Bleeding disorders-arise from abnormalities that prevent normal clot formation, 3- Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)- involves both wide spread clotting and severebleeding.
Embolus & embolism
A thrombus breaks away from the vessel wall and floats freely in the bloodstream, it becomes a Embolus. However, if the embolus encounters a blood vessel too narrow for it to pass through; then it becomes an Embolism, obstructing the vessel.
a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood. causing spontaneous bleeding from small blood vessels all over the body.
When oxygen needs to be restored in the blood, what type of blood is needed?
Packed red cells-Which is whole blood that most of the plasma has been removed.
what happens if a blood recipient is infused with mismatched blood types?
transfusion reaction occurs in which the the donors RBCs are attacked by the recipients plasms agglutinins.
patient predonates own blood and stores it so they can use it if they need it before or after a surgery
an antigen, first discovered in the rhesus monkey; a person is either Rh positive or negative. There are 45 different Rh agglutinations. Only 3 of these, the C, D, and E antigens are fairly common.
Average life span of RBCs? How does anucleate effect this life span?
100-120 days. Since they are anucleate when mature and circulatin gin the blood, they are not able to reproduce or repair damage, which limits their life span.
why is differential WBC count more valuable than total WBC count?
With a differential WBC, one can determine the source of pathology by evaluating different lekocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, etc,). where as the total WBC count represents the blood as a whole.
Normal Values in healthy adult males for: Total WBC Count, Total RBC count, Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, Bleeding Time, Coagulation Time
WBC Count- 4800-10,800, RBC count-5.1-5.8 million, Hematocrit-47.0-52.0, Hemoglobin-13-18g/100ml, Bleeding Time-2-7min, Coagulation Time-3-6min.
The Major Group of leukocytes that contain no observalble cytoplasmic granules and are more abundant in lymphoid tissue and lymph:
An Insuluable compound that forms a meshwork of strands thattrap RBCs and is, therefore, considered the structural basis of clot formation:
The ability of leukocytes to move in and out of blood vessels in order to reach sites of inflammation or tissue destruction:
Nucleated cellsthat are fromed in the bone marrow whose numbers average 4,000 to 11,000 per uL of blood:
Anucleocytes (without a nucleus) cells, when mature, whose numbers average 4.5 to 5.0 million per uL of blood:
Place the following in correct developmental sequence: 1-reticulocyte, 2-proerythroblast, 3-normoblast, 4-late erythroblast
You are given a capillary tube containing uncenterfuged blood and told to determine the patients hematocrit. The original column height before centerfuging is 50mm. After spinning, the bottom layer of the capillary tube containing cells is 20mm and the top laer containing plasma is 30mm. What is the patients hematocrit value?
Height of tube of element (mm) divided by the Height of origninal tube of whole bloof (mm) mulitplied by 100. So, 20mm divided by 50mm mulitplied by 100= 40% RBC
Also called reduced hemoglobin, this is the form of that results after oxygen diffuses into the blood.
This type of leukocyte is present in high amounts in the blood when a patients has parasitic infection
a lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characterisitic of:
Which sequence is correct for the following events? 1-fibrinogen to fibrin, 2-clot retraction, 3-formation of thromboplastin, 4-prothrombin to thrombin
3, 4, 1, 2
Freds blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?
There are no antibodies to A, B or to Rh antigens in the plasma