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Blood

Nonliving fluid matrix

plasma

The formed elements

Living blood cells, Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, Platelets

Reddish mass at bottom of spun tube

Erythrocytes

Erythrocytes are

Red blood cells (RBCs) that transport oxygen

A thin, whitish layer at the erythrocyte-plasma junction

Buffy coat

Buffy coat contains

leukocytes and platelets

cell fragments that help stop bleeding

Platelets

Erythrocytes constitute what percentage of the total volume of a blood sample

45%

Hematocrits

Percentage of whole blood volume made of Red blood cells

percentage of hematocrits in males and in females

males: 45% plus or minus 5%, females: 42% plus or minus 5%

Leukocytes and platelets contribute less than what percent of blood volume?

1%

Plasma makes up what remaining percent of whole blood?

55%

Oxygen rich blood, and oxygen poor blood, is what colors?

Oxygen rich: Scarlet, Oxygen poor: dark red

Blood accounts for what percent of body weight?

8%

Healthy adult male has an average blood volume of:

5-6L (about 1.5 gallons)

Healthy adult female has an average blood volume of:

4-5L

Distribution functions of blood

Transports oxygen from lungs, nutrients from digestive tract to all body cells. Transports metabolic waste products from cells to elimination sites (lungs-carbon dioxide, kidneys-nitrogenous wasts in urine). Transports hormones from the endocrine organs to their target organs.

Regulatory functions of blood:

Maintaining normal body temperature; maintaining normal pH in body tissues through buffers that prevent excessive or abrupt changes in blood pH, which could jeopardize normal cellular activities, and maintains adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system.

Protective functions of blood:

1. prevent blood loss by forming platelets and plasma protein to initiate clot formation. 2. Prevent infection by antibodies, complement proteins and WBC, all of which help defend against foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses.

Plasma

straw-colored, sticky fluid, containing over 100 differnet dissolved solutes: nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes and products of cell activity, ions, and proteins.

Plasma Protein

most abundant, contribute to osmotic pressure, maintaining water balance in blood and tissues.

Albumin

most abundant plasma protein, 60% of the total protein, made by the liver, plays an important role in osmotic balance, contributes to the viscosity of blood, transportation of lipids/hormones/calcium, helps to maintain pH.

formed elements

Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Platelets

Globulins:
alpha, beta-
gamma-

36% of plasma proteins
Alpha, beta- produced by liver, mostly transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, and fat-soluable vitamins.
gamma-antibodies released by by plasma cells during immune response.

fibrinogen

Produced by the liver, a blood protein that is converted to fibrin during blood clotting

nonprotein nitrogenous substances

by-products of cellular metabolism, such as urea, uric acid, creatinine, and ammonium salts

Nutrients (organic)

materials absorbed from digestive tract and transported for use throughout body; include glucose & other simple carbs, amino acids (digestion products of protein), fatty acids, glycerol, and triglycerides (fat products), cholesterol, and vitamins

Electrolytes

Cations include: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and anions include: chloride, phosphate, sulfate, bicarbonate; all of which help maintain osmotic pressure and normal blood pH.

Respiratory gases

oxygen and carbon dioxide, Oxygen, carbon dioxide, exchanged by diffusion.

Hormones

Steroid and thyroid hormones carried by plasma proteins

Spectrin

Protein found in RBCs that cause their characteristic biconclave shape; connects proteins in the plasma membrane with actin in the cytoskeleton

characteristics of an erythrocyte:

1-biconcave shape and small size. Since no area within cytoplasm is far from the surface, the biconcave disc shape is ideal for gas exchange. 2-not counting water content, and erythrocyte is 97% hemoglobin, the molecule that binds to and trasports respiratory gases. 3-erythrocytes lack a mitchiondria and generate ATP by anaerobic mechansims, making them perfect oxygen transporters since they dont consume any of the oxygen.

Hemoglobin

protein globin is bound to the red heme pigment. Combined making blood red in color.

Globin consists of how many polypeptide chains?

four. two alpha and two beta, each bound to a ringlike heme group.

Each heme group has:

an atom of iron set like a jewel in its center.

How many oxygen molecules can a hemoglobin molecule transport?

since each iron molecule can combine reversibly with one molecule of oxygen, a hemoglobin can transport four molecules of oxygen.

Why is hemoglobin contained in erythrocytes?

1-prevents it from breaking into fragments that would leak into the bloodstream, 2-prevents it from contributing to blood viscosity and osmotic pressure.

oxyhemoglobin

the bright red hemoglobin that is a combination of hemoglobin and oxygen from the lungs. Gets 3-dimensional shape and turns ruby red.

deoxyhemoglobin

In tissues, oxygen detaches from iron, hemoglobin resumes original shape. Blood becomes dark red. The oxygen diffuses from the blood and into the tissue fluid, then into the tissue cells.

carbaminohemoglobin

hemoglobin that has bound carbon dioxide onto its alpha and beta globin chains

hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis

the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the red bone marrow)

Red bone marrow

soft network of reticular connective tissue borderinf wide blood capillaries called blood sinusoids.

Reticular cells

Cells which make reticular fibers and form the stroma of bone marrow, and others.

hematopoietic stem cell or hemocytoblast

Red bone marrow cell; gives rise to many types of blood cells

Erythropoiesis

the process of producing red blood cells by the stem cells in the bone marrow

Erythrocyte production begins with a hemocytoblast descendant called:

Myeloid Stem Cell

Proerythroblast (cycle)

Phase 1 of a red blood cell cycle

early erythroblast (cycle)

Phase 2 of red blood cell cycle- producing huge numbers of ribosomes.

late erythroblast (cycle)

Phase 3 of red blood cell cycle-hemoglobin synthesis and iron accumulation occur.

normoblast (cycle)

Phase 4 of red blood cell cycle- Once a normoblast has accumulated its hemoglobin, it ejects the organelles, collapses inward, and becomes a concave reticulocyte.

reticulocyte (cycle)

Phase 5 of red blood cell cycle-Immature erythrocyte with a network of strands (reticulum).

Erythrocyte (cycle)

Final phase of red blood cell cycle.

erythropoietin (EPO)

Glycoprotein Hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell formation

When certain kidney cells become hypoxic (inadequate oxygen), they:

accelerate their release of erythropoietin.

The drop in normal blood oxygen levels that triggers EPO formation, can reult from: 1-3

1-reduced numbers of red blood cells due to hemorrahge or excessive RBC destruction.
2- Insufficient hemoglobin/RBC (iron deficiency)
3- Reduced availability of oxygen, as occurs at high altitudes.

Too many erythropoiesis or excessive amounts of oxygen in the bloodstream, does what?

depresses erythropoietin production.

T/F: It is not the number of erythrocytes in the blood that controls the rate of erythropoiesis. Control i sbased on their ability to transport enough oxygen to meet tissue demands.

True.

what percentage of iron isupply is in hemoglobin?

Approximately 65%

Ferritin

a protein containing 20% iron that is found in the intestines and liver and spleen

hemosiderin

iron storage protein (aggregated ferritin); some iron is stored in this form, when iron storage is high

transferrin

its a transport protein for iron

"Red blood cell graveyard" refers to what?

After 100-120 days, the red blood cell becomes trapped and fragment in smaller circulatory channels, particularly in the spleen. The spleen is sometimes called the "red blood cell graveyard".

Dying erythrocytes are engulfed and destroyed by:

macrophages

When the heme of their hemoglobin is split off from globin, what happens to the heme group?

The balance of the heme group is degraded to bilirubin

What happens to the core of iron salvaged from the hemoglobin?

It is bound to protein as ferritin or hemosiderin and stored for reuse.

bilirubin

yellow pigment that is released intothe blood and binds to albumin for transport.

Urobilinogen

Once bilirubin is picked up by liver cells, it in turn secretes as bile into the intestine, where its metabolized as urobilinogen.

Stercobilin

Brown pigment in feces

the protein globin, part of hemoglobin, is metabolized or broken down to:

Amino acids, which are released to the circulation.

T/F: most erythrocyte disorders can be classified as anemias or polycythemias?

True.

Anemia is:

a condition in which the blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity.It is a sign of a disorder, rather than a disease.

Hemorrhagic anemias are:

result from blood loss. Acute hemorrhagic anemia, blood loss is rapid, like in a stab wound. Blood replacement is treatment. Slight but persistent blood loss (ulcers or hemorrhoids), causes chronic hemorrhagic anemia. Primary problem needs to be resolved to replace defiecient blood cells.

Hemolytic anemia is:

erythrocytes rupture, or lyse, prematurely.hemoglobin abnormalities, transfusion of mismatched blood, and certain bacterial/parasitic infections can be causes.

Aplastic anemia is:

may result from destruction or inhibition of red marrow by certain drugs, chemicals, ionizing radiation, or viruses. Usually cause is unknown.Defects in blood clotting and in immunity are present.

Low hemoglobin content is:

when hemoglobin molecules are normal, but erythrocytes contain fewer that the usual number, a nutritional anemia is always suspected.

Iron-deficiency anemia is

a secondary result of hemorrhagic anemias, but it also results from inadequate intake of iron-containing foods and impaired iron absorption. Erythrocytes produced are small and pale, called microcytes.

Athletes anemia:

when athletes who exercise vigorously test positive for an iron- deficiency even though they really dont. Once they presume noral levels of activity, their blood components return to normal.

Intrinsic factor:

a substance produced by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12

Abnormal hemoglobin

usually genetic, serious, & incurable- in thalassemia & sickle-cell the globin part of hemoglobin is abnormal;RBCs are fragile & rupture early

thalassemias

seen in mediterranean ancestry. one of the globin chains is absent or faulty, and erythrocytesare thin, delicate, and deficient in hemglobin.

Sickle cell anemia-

abnormal hemoglobin. hemoglobin S (HbS), results from a change in just one of the 287 amiono acids in a beta chain of the globin molecule. This causes the beta chains to stick together under low oxygen conditions, forming stiff rods so that hemoglobin S becomes spiky and sharp. Cresent shape RBCs.

Polycythemia is:

an abnormal excess of Erythrocytes that increases blood viscosity, causing it to sludge, or flow sluggishly.

Polycythemia vera is:

a bone marrow cancer, characterized by dizziness and an exceptionally high RBC count. hematocrit may be as high as 80%, and blood volume may double.

Secondary polycythemias

result when less oxygen is available or EPO production increases. Blood dilation is treatment. To remove some blood and replacing it with saline.

Blood doping

practiced by some athletes.The practice of illicitly boosting the number of red blood cells, which transport oxygen, to enhance athletic performance

Leukocytes or White blood cells (WBC) are:

the only formed elements that aew complete cells, with nuclei and the usual organelles.

Leukocyctes:

defend body against disease organsims toxins and irritants

diapedesis

process where WBCs are able to slip out of the capillary blood vessels, and circulate their way to areas of the body where they are needed for inflammatory or immune reponses.

amoeboid motion

when WBCs form flowing cytoplasmic extensions that move them along

positive chemotaxis

following the chemical trail of molecules released by damaged cells or other leukocytes.

leukocytosis

increase in the number of white blood cells- over 11,000cells.

Leukocytes listed from most abundant to least abundant. Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas. (N,L,M,E,B) means:

Most to least abundant Leukocytes: N-Neutrophils, L-Lymphocytes, M-Monocytes, E-Eosinophils, B-Basophils.

Name two major categories leukocytes are put into, based on their structural and chemical characteristics:

Granulocytes-contain obvious membrane-bound cytoplasmic granules.
Agranulocytes-lack obvious granules.

Granulocytes:

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils- larger, and live much shorter than erythrocytes.

Neutrophils:

accounting for 50-70% of WBCs. The most abundant type of white blood cell. Neutrophils are phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days. Neutrophils are our bodys bacteria slayers.

Defensins:

Antimicrobial proteins

polymorphonuclear leukocytes

Also called polys. Consist of three to six lobes because of nuclear variablility.

respiratory burst

oxygen is metabolized to produce a potent germ killer oxidizing substances such as bleach and hydrogen peroxide. Defensin-mediated lysis occurs.

Eosinophils:

they lead counterattack against parasitic worms, such as flatworms (tapeworms and flukes) and roundworms (pinworms and hookworms) that are too large to be phagocytized.

Basophils:

rarest of WBCs. Their cytosplasm contains large, coarse, histamine-containing granules.

Agranulocytes

A group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei; lymphocytes, monocytes.

Lymphocytes

2nd most numerous leukocyte in the blood., only a small protion of them is found in the bloodstream. Play a crucial role in immunity.

T lymphocytes

T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.

B lymphocytes

B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections

what are the two types of lymphocytes?

T lymphocyte, and B lymphocyte.

What is a monocyte?

Once they leave the bloodstream and enter the tissues, they turn into highly mobile macrphages with huge appetites. Macrophages are important in activating lymphocytes to mount the immune response.

what is leukopoiesis?

The production of white blood cells.

Chemical messengers that act either as paracrines or hormones, are glycoproteins that fall into two families hematopoietic factors:

1-interleukins, 2-colony-stimulating factors or CSFs

lymphoid stem cells

begin their development in red bone marrow but complete it in lymphatic tissues; they give rise to lymphocytes.

myeloid stem cells

begin their development in red bone marrow and give rise to red blood cells, platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

myeloblasts

accumulate lysosomes to become promyelocytes

Precursor of granulocyte: ____ are more abundant cytoplasm, more primary granules, nucleoli are still

promyelocytes

myelocytes

Right after promyelocytes. This is point at which specific granules appear. You can determine the type of cell it is at this point. Then cell division stops

band cell

An immature neutrophil with a nucleus in the shape of a band; also called a stab cell. Band cell counts are used to trace infections and other diseases.

promonocyte

a cell arising from a monoblast, leaving the bone marrow and developing into a monocyte.

Lymphoblast

an immature lymphocyte

prolymphocyte

derived from a lymphoblast, immediate precursor of a lymphocyte.

Leukopenia

an abnormally low WBC count

Infectious Mononucleosis

once known as the kissing disease, its a highly contagious viral disease most often seen in young adults. Caused by the epstein barr virus, excessive number of agranulocytes, many are atypical.

Platelets

not cells. They are cytoplasmic fragmentsof very large cells called megakaryocytes. Platelets are essential for the clotting process that occurs in plasma when blood vessels are ruptured or their lining is injured.

thrombopoietin

hormone that regulates platelet formation

Hemostasis

stoppage of bleeding

Name 3 steps of hemostasis:

1-vascular spasm, 2-platelet plug formation, 3-coagulation of blood.

How does blood loss stop?

fibrous tissue grows into the clot and seals the hole in the blood vessel.

vasoconstriction

constriction of a damaged blood vessel.

Name 3 triggers of vascular spasms.

1-direct injury to vascular smooth muscle, 2-chemicals released by endothelial cells and platelets, 3-reflexes inititated by local pain receptors.

von willebrand factor (VWF)

plasma protein secreted by endothelial cells; facilitates adherence of platelets to the collagen fibers and undergo amazing changes, such as they swell, spike, and become sticky.

Serotonin effects at an open wound

granules begin to breakdown and release, serotonin to enhance the vascular spasm.

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) at an open wound

Attract more platelets to the area and causethem to release their contents.

Thromboxane A2 at an open wound

short lived prostaglandin derivative, that is generated and released, stimulating both serotonin amd ADP events.

prostacyclin

prostaglandin produced by intact endothelial cells that is a strong inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Once reinforced with fibrin threads (molecular glue) the platelets are quite effective in sealing the small tears in blood vessels.

Coagulation

blood is transformed froma liquid to a gel, in a multistep process that leads to the last three phases.

Coagulation process: 1-3

1-complex substance called prothrombin activator is formed, 2-Prothrombin activator converts a plasma protein called prothrombin into thrombin (an enzyme), 3-thrombin catalyzes the joining of fibrinogen molecules in plams to a fibrin mesh, which traps blood cells and seal the hole until it can be permanently repaired.

Procoagulants

enhance clotting factors

anticoagulants

inhibit clotting factors

Name 3 Phases to Prothrombin Activity

Phase 1-clotting is either by intrinsic or extrinsic pathway. Both are usually triggered by the same tissue damaging events. Phase 2-Prothrombin activator catalyzes the transformation of the plasma protein prothrombin to the active enzyme thrombin. Phase 3- Thrombin catalyzes the plymerization of fibrinogen. These long, hairlike insoluable fibrinogen molecules align, and act as the glue that keeps the platelets together, making the structural basis of the clot. In the presence of fibrin, plasma becomes gel-like and traps any formed elements that try to pass through it.

Factor XIII (fibrin stabilizing factor)

cross-linking enzyme that binds the fibrin strands together and strengthens and stabilizes the clot.

Which is more rapid pathway? Why? Extrinsic or Intrinsic.

Extrensic. Because it involves fewer steps. Even in severe trauma it can produce a clot formation within 15 min.

Clot retraction

Tightening of the fibrin clot. Platelets contain actin and myosin (muscle proteins) which contract and pull the edges of the wound closer together. Occurs over 30-60 minutes after clotting.

Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)

released by platelet degranulation, stimulates smooth muscle cells and and fibroblasts to divide and rebuild the wall.

fibrinolysis

removes unwanted clots when healing has occured.

Name two major disorders of hemostasis:

1- Thromboembolic disorders-conditions that cause undesirable clot formation, 2- Bleeding disorders-arise from abnormalities that prevent normal clot formation, 3- Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)- involves both wide spread clotting and severebleeding.

Thrombus

a clot develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel.

Embolus & embolism

A thrombus breaks away from the vessel wall and floats freely in the bloodstream, it becomes a Embolus. However, if the embolus encounters a blood vessel too narrow for it to pass through; then it becomes an Embolism, obstructing the vessel.

thrombocytopenia

a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood. causing spontaneous bleeding from small blood vessels all over the body.

Hemophelia

several differnet hereditary bleeding disorders tjat have similar signs and symptoms.

When blood loss is rapid and substantial, what type of blood is needed?

whole blood transfusions

When oxygen needs to be restored in the blood, what type of blood is needed?

Packed red cells-Which is whole blood that most of the plasma has been removed.

Agglutinins

unique to the ABO blood groups is the presence in the plasma of preformed antibodies

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