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evolution

generation-to-generation change in the proportion of different inherited genes in a population that account for all of the changes that have transformed life over an immense time

natural selection

process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well-suited to the environment leave more offspring than do other individuals

Charles Darwin

English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)

Galapagos Islands

a group of islands in the Pacific off South America; owned by Ecuador; known for unusual animal life where Darwin found the fiches that led him to the theory of evolution

species

distinct form of life

vestigial structures

remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species

homologous structures

similar structure found in more than one species that share a common ancestor

convergent evolution

process in which unrelated species from similar enviroments have adaptations that seem very similar

fossils

remains or making left by an organism that lived in the past

development of embryos

stage in human development from the first division of the zygote until about nine weeks after fertilization

gene pool

all the alleles in all the individuals that make up a population

gene frequency

how often a particular gene occurs in the population

gene flow

exchange of genes between populations

artificial selection

selective breeding~desired traits

survival of the fittest

a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment

adaptive radiation

evolution from a common ancestor of many species adapted to diverse environments

punctuated equilibrium

model suggesting diverge in spurts of relately rapid change followed by long periods of little change

reproductive isolation

condition in which a reproductive barrier keeps two species from interbreeding

behavioral isolation

type of reproductive isolation in which two organisms have different mating rituals that prevent them from interbreeding

geogrphic isolation

separation of populations due to geographic change/migration

genetic drift

change in the gene pool of poplustion due to chance

descent with modification

when descendants of ancestral organisms spread into various habitats and accumulate adaptations to diverse ways of life

Carolus Linnaeus

Swedish botanist who proposed the modern system of biological nomenclature (1707-1778)

binomial nomenclature

Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name

scientific name

The name given to each species, consisting of its genus and its species label

domains

broadest category used to classify life forms

kingdoms

highest classification of organisms in the taxonomic level.

clade

a group of biological taxa or species that share features inherited from a common ancestor

protists

eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant, or fungus.

protozoa

animal like protist; is a heteroph

algae

plant like protist-uses photosynthesis

slime molds

funguslike protists that play key roles in recycling organic material

prokaryote

no nucleus

eukaryote

nucleus

pseudopods

temorary extension of a cells cytoplasm and plasma membrane-made by certain protozoans in movemnt and feeding

flagella

(core of microtubules) that enable some cells to move

cilia

short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell's surface

consumer

organism that obtains food by eating producers (autotrophs) or other consumers

producer

makes own food

decompser

organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms

food vacuole

small cavity in the cytoplasm of protists that temporarily stores food

contractile vacuole

saclike organelles that expand to collect excess water and contract to squeeze the water out of the cell

pigments

colors

locomotion

self-propelled movement

fermentation

cellular process of making ATP without oxygen

budding

asexual reproduction in which a part of the parent organism pinches off and forms a new organism

absorptive nutrition

method by which fungi absorb small organic molecules from their surroundings

hyphae

a thread of cytoplam~makes up the body of fungus

mycelia

interwoven mat of hyphae-feeding structure

spores

haploid single cell with a thick wall that functions in the dispersal stages in fungal reproduction

sporangia

reproductive-spore forming structures

mycorrhzae

symbiotic relationships between fungal hyphae and plant roots

lichen

mutualistic pairing of a fungus and an alga

reproductive structure of fungus

spores, sporangia, zygosporangium

antibiotics

medicine that kills or slows the growth of bacteria

importance of microbes

decomposition, food production, vitamin/hormone production, antibiotic, production, bioremeditation, pest control, sewage treatment, research tools, food spoilage, diseases, biowarfare

virus

must use host cells machinery to reproduce

virus parts

head w/ DNA inside, protein coat, tail

lysogenic cycle

a viral reproductive cycle in which the viral DNA is added to the host cell's DNA and is copied along with the host cells DNA

lytic cycle

(viral) copies of a virus are made within a host cell, which then burst open releasing new viruses...ew

vaccines

dose of a disabled or destryed pathogen(or part of a pathogen) elimulates long term immune defense against pathogen

viral diseases

HIV, influenza, polio, smallpox, chickenpox, common cold, mumps, measles.

uses of prokaryotes

Recovery of metals from ores
Synthesis of vitamins
Production of antibiotics, hormones, and other products
Production of cheese, yogurt

Gram stain

a staining technique used to classify bacteria-gram pos~ purple -gram neg~pink shows difference in cell wall

pathogen

any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)

angiosperm

flowering plant

gymnosperm

plant that bears seeds that are not enclosed in a ovary NAKED

moss

tiny leafy-stemmed flowerless plants

fern

any of numerous flowerless and seedless vascular plants having true roots from a rhizome and fronds that uncurl upward

vascular

of or relating to or having vessels that conduct and circulate fluids

non-vascular

containing no plant tissue through which water and food move

bryophyte

plant such as moss lacking lignin-hardened vascular tissue

diagram of leaf

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