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heart

_______________is located in the chest, between the lugs in an area of the chest known as the mediastinum

2/3 on left side

the majority of the heart lies ______________________ of the line and 1/3 on the right side

apex (blunt point of the heart)

the heart is triangular in shape and the _______________________ lies slightly to the left on the diaphragm

aorta

the branches of the coronary arties come from the _______________

great cardiac vein

the _______________________bring blood back to the heart

pericardium

the thick outer fibrous covering of the heart is known as the _______________________

epicardium

the thin covering layer under the pericardium is known as the ______________________
and fits loosely around the heart allowing enough room for the heart to beat

right coronary artery

the ascending aorta receives blood first from the ________________________________

chordae tendoneae

______________________ are fibrous band like structures that attach to the edges of the AV valves and to the papillary muscles (they do not open valves)

papillary muscles

_______________________ are the muscular structures that are found only inside the ventricles and they hold the chordae tendoneae in place (holds AV valves in place)

atrial ventricular valves (AV)

the __________________________ separate the atrium and the ventricles

tricuspid valve

the right AV valve is know as the ____________________

mitral (bicuspid) valve

the left AV valve is know as the ______________________

semilunar valves (SV)

the valves that exits the ventricles are known as the ________________________

pulmonary valve

the right semilunar valve is known as the ________________________________

aortic valve

the left semilunar valve is known as the _______________

dub

the second sound the heart is __________ makes is caused by the closing of both semilunar valves when the ventricles undergo diastole (relaxation)

lub

the first sound _______________ is caused by the vibration of the closure of the AV valves when the ventricles contract

cardiomegaly

____________________ is an enlarged heart, x-rays are taken to see if the heart is enlarged

coronary circulation

when the coronary arteries that branch off the ascending atria delivers oxygen and nutrient-rich arterial blood to the cardiac muscle tissue, and then return of oxygen-poor blood from the active tissue to the venous system is known as the ___________________

right and left coronary arteries

the ______________________________ branch off of the aorta and supply the heart with blood and oxygen, they supply the myocardium for both the sides of the heart

heart murmur

a ________________ is an abnormal heart sounds that are caused by disorders of the valves the most common reason is incompetent valves which may cause a swishing sound as a 'dub' it often ends in a swishing sound

embolism

a(an) _______________ can occur as a thrombosis in the coronary artery which is a blockage occludes or plugs some of the coronary artery where there is a reduction or a stopping of blood flow to that region of the heart, therefore oxygen and nutrients cannot get to the heart muscles (heart will die as a result)

myocardial infarction

a _________________________ happens when there is no flow of blood to the heart, referred to as a 'heart attack' and is a common cause of death during middle and late adulthood, recovery is possible depending on the amount of damage done to the heart muscle

cardiac cycle

the __________________ includes a contraction (systole) and a relaxation (diastole) of the atrium as well as a contraction (systole) and a relaxation (diastole) of the ventricles

stroke volume

the ___________________ is the amount of blood that is ejected from the ventricles during each beat of the heart, this amount can be decreased from normal due to valvular disorder, myocardial infarction and blockage of the coronary arteries

cardiac output

the ___________________ is the volume of blood pumped by one ventricle per minute, which averages out to be around 5L in a normal resting adult

per minute

all of the blood in our body is pumped out of our heart ___________________________

one cardiac cycle

one contraction (systole) and a relaxation (diastole) is ____________________________

intercalated disks

_________________________ are actually electrical connectors that join the muscle fibers together into a single unit and allows for conduction impulses through the entire wall of the heart chamber without stopping and is only found in the myocardium, it does not need the nervous system to beat because it beats on its own (part of the conduction system of the heart)

conduction system of the heart

the ________________________________ has muscle fibers that can contract on their own rhythmically and are coordinated by electrical signals that are built into the myocardium, the myocardial fibers in each region of the heart are electrically linked together

sinoatrial node (SA node)

_________________________ is also known as the pacemaker of the heart, it is found in the upper right atrium

atrioventricular node (AV node)

_________________________ is found in the lower right atrium

AV bundle or Bundle of His

the __________________________ is found in the interventricular septum

right and left branches

the __________________________ are found in the interventricular septum wall of the ventricles

ECG or EKG

__________________ is the graphic record of the hearts electrical activity

pulse

electrical and mechanical activity from an EKG can be checked by the ______________ to make sure they are correct

electrocardiograph

specialized structures of the heart conduction system generate tiny electrical currents through tissue and can be picked up and transformed into visible tracings by a(an) ______________________________

P-wave

the _______________ represents the atrial contraction (systole) and depolarization of the atrial and is mechanical

QRS-wave

__________________ is a group of waves that represent the ventricular contraction, represents depolarization of (systole) and ventricular, and is mechanical

T-wave

___________________ represents the ventricular relaxation (diastole) and is the polarization of the ventricular, and is mechanical

volume

the EKG's vertical line (up & down) measures the ____________________

time

on the EKG, the horizontal line (left to right) measures the _____________________

.04

one tiny cube on the ECG paper counts for __________ seconds in time

.02

one large box on the ECG paper counts for ______________ seconds in time

positive

when the wave lines go above the baseline on the ECG paper it is considered to be a _________________ wave

negative

when the wave lines go below the baseline on the ECG paper it is considered to be a _______________ wave

6.0

30 tiny boxes would equal ___________ seconds

endocardium

____________________ makes up the heart

endocarditis

_____________________ is an inflammation of the enternal lining of the heart usually due to a bacterial infection, this condition can lead to or be caused from valvular infections

pericarditis

__________________ is the inflammation of the outermost layer (sac) of the pericardium of the heart, can be caused from trauma, viral or bacterial infection, tumors, it can cause the visceral and parietal pericardium to rub together causing severe chest pain

pericardial fluid

____________________ is pus or blood that accumulates between the pericardium and epicardial layer and begins to impair the pumping action of the heart

pericardial effusion

________________________ is caused from pericardial fluid pus or blood that accumulates between the pericardium and epicardial layer and begins to impair the pumping action of the heart

cardiac tamponade

_____________________ is a result from pericardial effusion but is a large build up of pericardial fluids in the sac of the heart

incompetent valves

______________________ (AV valve that is damaged) is a leaky valve that allows some blood to flow back into the chamber from which it came, it is like a heart murmur

stenosed valves

_____________________ are values that are narrower than normal, slowing blood flow from a heart chamber, rheumatic fever is a cause

rheumatic heart disease (also known as rheumatic fever)

_____________________________ is a cardiac damage resulting from a delayed inflammatory response to streptococcal, infection occurs most often in children, if untreated then valves of the heart and other tissue will become inflamed, example is strep in children

mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

___________________________ is a condition affecting the mitral (bicuspid) valve, can be genetic in some cases but can result from rheumatic fever or other factors

atherosclerosis

______________________ is build up of the arteries causing them to be blocked and interferes with the blood vessels ability to constrict and dilate which is known as hardening of the arteries

angina pectoris

___________________ is severe chest pain when myocardium (heart muscle) is deprived of adequate oxygen and blood-nutrients, it can be a warning sign of a heart attack, rest can help subside it

great saphenous vein

the ________________________ is used during coronary bypass surgery, it is need when the blood vessels are blocked in the heart and it will help to restore blood flow

bradycardia

___________________ is a slow heart rate over 60 beats per minute

tachycardia

___________________ refers to a rapid heart rate over 100 beats per minute

sinus dysrhythmia

_________________ is a variation in heart rate, rate increase during inspiration and decreases during expiration

premature contractions

____________________ occurs before the next expected contraction in a series of cardiac cycles

atrial fibrilation

_________________ can cause a blood clot or stroke, may need a pacemaker

ventricular tachycardia

_____________________ can have a pulse but a deadly lethal rhythm around 180 beats per minute

fine ventricular fibrilation

___________________________ about to flat-line and will not have a pulse

course ventricular fibrilation

____________________ is deadly

veins

______________ carry blood to the heart

arteries

________________ carry blood away from the heart

purkinjie fibers

_________________ are modified cardiac muscle fibers in the subendothelial tissue, concerned with conducting impulses through the heart

atrium or atria

there are two smaller chambers located at the top of the heart and are known as the ______________________

ventricle

the two chambers at the bottom area of the heart are known as the __________________

septum

______________________ is the dividing wall or muscular region between the two pumps

interatrial septum

_____________________ divides the atria

interventricular septum

___________________ divides the ventricle

myocardium

____________________ is composed of a muscular tissue in the wall of each pump

endocardium

_____________________ is a very thin layer of epithelia tissue that is the internal lining of the heart

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