Intro to A&P Christensen Ch. 41

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Powerpoint, Textbook Chapter Review Questions

The anatomical term that refers to the distal portion of the spine is

Caudal

The trachea, the heart, the blood vessels, and the lungs are located in which body cavity?

Ventral

A relative constant state in the body's internal environment naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy survival is called

Homeostasis

A process in which solid particles in a fluid move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration, resulting in an even distribution of the particles in the fluid, is called

Diffusion

The movement of materials across the membrane of a cell by means of chemical activity requiring the expenditure of energy by the cell is called

Active Transport

What type of tissue is composed of cells that contract in response to a message from the brain or spinal cord?

Muscle

The thin sheets of tissue that secrete mucus and line the body surfaces that open to the outside environment are

Mucous Membranes

An active transport process that permits a cell to engulf or surround foreign material and digest it is called

Phagocytosis

A type of cell division of somatic cells in which each daughter cell contains the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell is called

Mitosis

A group of several different kinds of tissues arranged so they can perform a special function together is called

Organ

Groups of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function are called

Tissues

The hypogastric region of the abdominopelvic cavity is located in which regions (name 2 - the one it is Inferior To and the one it is Medial To)

Inferior to the umbilical region and Medial to the right iliac region.

The two major cavities of the body are the

Dorsal and Ventral

The structure that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity is the

Diaphram

Name the opposite directional term:

Superior

Inferior

Name the opposite directional term:

Distal

Proximal

Name the opposite directional term:

Anterior

Posterior

Name the opposite directional term:

Lateral

Medial

Name the opposite directional term:
Deep

Superficial

Name the correct system:

Protects underlying structures, provides for sensory reception and regulates body temperatures

Intergumentary

Name the correct system:

Provides a rigid framework for the body and stores minerals

Skeletal

Name the correct system:

Provides movement, body posture and heat

Muscular

Name the correct system:

Uses electrochemical signals to integrate and control body functions

Nervous

Name the correct system:

Uses hormones to regulate body functions

Endocrine

Name the correct system:

Transports fatty nutrients from the digestive system to the blood

Cardiovascular

Name the correct system:

Transports substances from one part of the body to another

Lymphatic

Name the correct system:

Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide and regulates acit-base balance

Respiratory

Name the correct system:

Makes physical and chemical changes in nutrients and absorbs nutrients

Digestive

Name the correct system:

Cleans the blood of metabolic wastes and regulates electrolyte balance

Urinary

Name the correct system:

Ensures the survival of the species rather than the individual

Reproductive

Define:

Anatomy

The study, classification and description of structures and organs of the body.

Define:

Physiology

Explains the processes and functions of the various structures and how they interrelate.

Define:

Anterior

(aka Ventral)

To face forward; the front of the body. The chest is Anterior to the spine.

Define:

Posterior

(aka Dorsal)

Toward the back. The kidneys are posterior to the peritoneum.

Define:

Cranial

Toward the head. The brain is located in the cranial portion of the body.

Define:

Caudal

Toward the "tail." The distal portion of the spine. A caudal anestetic may be given.

Define:

Superior

Toward the head, or above. The neck is superior to the shoulders.

Define:

Inferior

Lower, toward the feet or below another. The foot is inferior to the ankle.

Define:

Medial

Toward the midline. The sternum (breastbone) is located in the medial portion of the chest.

Define:

Lateral

Toward the side. The outer area of the leg, the area located on the side, is called lateral.

Define:

Proximal

Nearest the origin of the structure, nearest the trunk. The elbow is proximal to the forearm.

Define:

Distal

Farthest from the origin of the structure, farthest from the trunk. The fingers are distal to the hand.

Define:

Superficial

Nearer the surface. The skin of the arm is superficial to the muscles below it.

Define:

Deep

Further away from the body surface. The bone of the upper arm is deep to the muscles that surround and cover it.

Define:

Sagittal Plane

Runs lengthwise from the front to the back. Cuts the body into a right and left section. A midsagittal cut gives two equal halves.

Define:

Coronal (Frontal) Plane

Divides the body into a ventral (front) section and a dorsal (back) section.

Define:

Transverse Plane

Cuts the body horizontally to the sagittal and frontal planes, dividing the body into caudal and cranial portions.

Define:

Ventral Cavity

Consists of the Thoracic (or chest) cavity and the Abdominopelvic cavity which are separated by the diaphragm (a muscle directly beneath the lungs).
Larger than the dorsal cavity.

Define:

Mediastinum

Contains the trachea, the heart and the blood vessels.

Define:

Thoracic Cavity

Contains the heart, lungs. Its midportion is a subdivision of the thoracic cavity - the Mediastinum - which contains the trachea, the heart and the blood vessels. Its other subdivisions are the right and left pleural cavities, which contain the lungs.

Define:

Abdominopelvic Cavity

Contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, small intestine and parts of the large intestine. A subdivision called the Pelvic Cavity contains the lower portion of the large intestine (lower sigmoid colon, rectum), the urinary bladder and the internal structures of the reproductive system. The abdominal and pelvic cavities are not separated by any structure and are therefore referred to as the Abdominopelvic Cavity.

Define:

Dorsal Cavity

Is comprised of the cranial and spinal body cavities. Smaller than the ventral cavity.

Define:

Cranial Cavity

Houses the brain.

Define:

Spinal Cavity

Contains the spinal cord.

Name the 9 Abdominal Regions

1. Right hypochrondriac region
2. Epigastric region
3. Left hypochrondriac region
4. Right lumbar region
5. Umbilical region
6. Left lumbar region
7. Right iliac (inguinal) region
8. Hypogastric region
9. Left iliac (inguinal) region

Right hypochrondriac region contains

Right lobe of the liver and the gallbladder.

Epigastric region contains

Parts of the right and left lobes of the liver, a large portion of the stomach.

Left hypochrondriac region contains

A small portion of the stomach and large intestine.

Right lumbar region contains

Parts of the large and small intestine.

Umbilical region contains

A portion of the transverse colon and loops of the small intestine.

Left lumbar region contains

Additional loops of the small intestine and a portion of the colon.

Right iliac (inguinal) region contains

The cecum and parts of the small intestine.

Hypogastric region contains

Loops of the small intestine, the urinary bladder and the appendix.

Left iliac (inguinal) region contains

Portions of the colon and the small intestine.

Name the 4 Abdominopelvic Quadrants

RUQ (Right Upper Quadrant), LUQ (Left Upper Quadrant).
RLQ (Right Lower Quadrant), LLQ (Left Lower Quadrant).

Define Diffusion

The movement of PARTICLES in all directions through a solution or gas. Solutes move from an area of high to low concentration, resulting in equal distribution.

Define Osmosis

A special type of diffusion, the movement of WATER through a semi-permeable (which allows the passage of some substances while allowing for others) in all directions through a solution. Water moves from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water. The dissolved substances do not move.

Define Filtration

The transfer of water and dissolved substances from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure, a force behind filtration is hydrostatic pressure (the force of fluid pressing outward on a vessel wall).

Define Hydrostatic Pressure

The force of fluid pressing outward on a vessel wall.

Define Hemeostasis

Relative consistency in the internal environment of the body, naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy survival.

Daily water intake/output =

2500 mL

Phases of cell division (Mitosis) are:

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

Define Organ

A group of tissues that perform a specialized function, eg: lungs

Name the parts of the cell

Cilia, flagella, microvilli, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum (covered with ribosmoes), lysosomes, cytoplasm, free robosomes, cell membrane, microtubule, centrioles, mitochondria, nuclear membrane, nucleolus, golgi apparatus, nucleoplasm, nucleolus, cytoskeleton, inclusion bodies

The control center of the cell is the:

Nucleous

Structural Levels of Organization

Chemical Level - Atoms, Molecules.
Cellular Level.
Tissue Level.
Organ Level.
System Level.
Organism (Human Being).

Cell Structural Parts - Plasma Membrane

-Keeps cell whole and intact.
-Selectively permeable.

Cell Structural Parts - Cytoplasm

-Sticky, fluid-like substance between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.
-Contains organelles (tiny functioning structures including nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, centrioles).

Cell Structural Parts - Nucleus

-Largest organelle
-Responsible for cell reproduction & control of other organelles.
-Surronded by nuclear membrane.
-Contains nucleoplasm.
-Contains nucleolus (critical in formation of proteins).
-Contains chromatin granules (composed of protein & DNA).

Cell Structural Parts - Endoplasmic reticulum

-Smooth and rough
-Functions as a miniature circulation system.

Cell Structural Parts - Golgi Apparatus

-Packaging plant (packages certain carbohydrates and protein compounds into globules, then releases them outside the cell).

Cell Structural Parts - Centrioles

-Aid in the formation of the spindle during mitosis.
-Necessary for cell reproduction.
-Paired, rod-shaped organelles.

Cell Structural Parts - DNA

-Located in the nucleus.
-Chemical blueprint of the cell (encodes the message for protein synthesis and sends it to the RNA).

Cell Structural Parts - RNA

-Located in the cytoplasm.
-Chemical messenger (transports DNA message to ribosomes where the protein is produced).

Cell Division - Mitosis

-Reproduction of cells
-One cell divides to become 2 daughter cells
-Chromosomes are located in the nucleus, carry genes responsible for the cell's traits. Each cell contains 46 chromosomes. Each exists in pairs (1 from the father, 1 from the mother).

Movement of Materials Across Cell Membrane

Can be done by Active Transport (movement of materials across the membrane of a cell by means of a chemical activity that allows the cell to admit larger molecules than would otherwise not be able to enter the cell, it requires energy).

Types of Active Transport

-Phagocytosis - "Cell Eating," Movement of cells or other large particles into the cell by trapping them in a section of the plasma membrane.
-Pinocytosis - "Cell Drinking," Movement of fluids and dissolved molecules into a cell by trapping them in a section of the plasma membrane.
-Calcium or Sodium-Potassium Pump - Movement of solute particles from an area of low concentrations to an area of higher concentrations by means of a carrier molecule.

Movement of Materials Across Cell Membrane

Can be done by Passive Transport (movement of small molecules across the membrane of a cell by diffusion, osmosis or filtration, it requires no energy).

Types of Passive Transport

-Diffusion - Solid particles in a fluid move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
-Osmosis - The passage of water across a selectively permeable membrane, with water molecules going from the less concentrated solution to the more concentrated solution.
-Filtration - The movement of water and particles through a membrane by force.

Types of Tissues - Epithelial

Covers the outside of the body and some internal structures. Functions - Protection, Absorption, Secretion.
Types:
-Simple Squamos - Alveoli of lungs, lining of vessels.
-Simple Columnar - Lining of stomach, intestines and respiratory tract.
-Stratified Squamous - Lining of mouth & esophagus, surface of skin.
-Stratified Transitional - Urinary bladder.

Types of Tissues - Connective

Connects joints or structures to the body.
Types:
-Areloar
-Adipose
-Dense fibrous
-Bone
-Cartilage
-Blood

Types of Tissues - Muscle

Contracts in response to a message from the brain or spinal cord.
Types:
-Skeletal - Voluntary, attached to bones.
-Cardiac - Involuntary, with electrical supply (nerve cells), in the heart.
-Smooth (Visceral) - Involuntary, lines internal organs (blood vessels, stomach, intestines, uterus).

Types of Tissues - Nervous

Provides rapid communication between body structures and control of body functions.
Comprised of Neurons and (transmit impulses or messages) Glial Cells (support and nourish the neurons).

Membranes - 3 Types

1. Epithelial Membranes
2. Serous Membranes
3. Synovial Membranes aka Connective Membranes

Epithelial Membranes

Are Mucous Membranes.
-Line the body surfaces that open to the outside (Nose, mouth, urinary tract, reproductive tract, etc).
-Secrete mucous - a thick, slippery material that keeps membranes soft and moist, protect against bacterial invasion and lubricate the GI tract.

Serous Membranes

Line body surfaces that do not open to the outside.
-Found in the lungs, intestines, heart.
-Secrete serous fluid - a thin, watery fluid.
-Have 2 layers: Parietal (lines the wall of the cavity) & Visceral (is on the organ side and covers the surface of the organ).

Connective Membranes aka Synovial Membranes

Line the joint spaces between bones and prevent friction.
-Secrete synovial fluid - a thick, colorless lubrication fluid.

Organ Systems - Intergumentary System

-Skin
-Hair
-Nails
-Sense Receptors
-Sweat Glands
-Oil Glands

Organ Systems - Skeletal System

-Bones
-Joints

Organ Systems - Muscular System

-Muscles

Organ Systems - Nervous System

-Brain
-Spinal Cord
-Nerves

Organ Systems - Circulatory System

-Heart & Blood Vessels

Organ Systems - Endocrine System

-Pituitary Glands
-Pineal Gland
-Hypothalamus
-Thyroid Gland
-Parathyroids
-Thyms
-Adrenals
-Pancreas (has endocrine and exocrine functions)
-Ovaries (female)
-Testes (male)

Organ Systems - Lymphatic System

-Lymph nodes and vessels
-Thymus
-Spleen
-Tonsils

Organ Systems - Respiratory System

-Nose
-Pharynx
-Larynx
-Trachea
-Bronchi
-Lungs

Organ Systems - Digestive System (Primary Organs)

-Mouth
-Pharynx
-Esophagus
-Stomach
-Small Intestine
-Large Intestine
-Rectum
-Anal Canal

Organ Systems - Digestive System (Accessory Organs)

-Teeth
-Salivary Glands
-Tongue
-Liver
-Gallbladder
-Pancreas
-Appendix

Organ Systems - Urinary System

-Kidneys
-Ureters
-Urinary bladder
-Urethra

Organ Systems - Reproductive System - Male

-Gonads (Testes)
-Genital Ducts (Vas Deferens, Urethra)
-Accessory Glands (Prostrate)
-Supporting Structures
-Genitalia (Penis, Scrotum)

Organ Systems - Reproductive System - Female

-Gonads (Ovaries)
-Accessory Organs (Uterus, Fallopian Tubes, Vagina)
-Supporting Structures
-Genitalia (Vulva)
-Mammary Glands (Breasts)

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