HPRS 1206 Chapter 5 & 6 digestive system from study guide

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ths is straight form Professor Bodman's study guide

lapar/o

abdomen

celi/o

abdomen

functions of GI tract

ingestion
digestion
absorption
elimination

GI

gastrointestinal

or/o

mouth, oral cavity

stomat/o

mouth, oral cavity

cheli/o

lip

labi/o

lip

bucc/o

cheek

dent/o

tooth

odont/o

tooth

gingiv/o

gums

gloss/o

tongue

lingu/o

tongue

palat/o

palate

peri-

surrounding, around

periodontal

gum disease
(p.t. surrounding the tooth)

endo-

in, within

endodontist

specialist of within the tooth

parotid

salivary gland, the largest of the three pairs of salivary glands are the

submandibular

salivary gland, pertaining to below the mandible

sublingual

salivary gland, pertaining to under the tongue

masticate

(v.) - to chew

deglutition

act or process of swallowing

pharynx

passageway between the oral cavity and the esophagus

epiglottis

a flap of cartilage that covers the trachea while swallowing to prevent food or liquid from entering into the the trachea

bolus

food after it has been chewed and mixed with saliva

peristalsis

involuntary rhythmic muscular contractions that squeeze food through the esophagus into the stomach

-stalsis

Contraction

dys-

bad, painful, difficult, abnormal

-phagia

eating, swallowing
(do not confuse with -phasia, which means speech)

abdomen/o

abdomen

paracentisis

a surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdominal cavity.

gastr/o

stomach

fundus

uppermost domed portion of the stomach

body

central portion of the stomach

antrum

lower portion of the stomach

which part of the stomach is distal?

antrum

which part of the stomach is proximal?

fundus

sphincter

a ring of muscle that contracts to close an opening

stenosis

tightening, stricture, narrowing

LES

lower esophageal sphincter
aka cardiac sphincter

GERD

gastroesophageal reflux disorder (disease)

eructation

gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
(burp, belch)

pyloric

pertaining to the gatekeeper, the opening between the stomach and the duodenum.

pyloric stenosis

narrowing of the pyloric sphincter that blocks the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum

enter/o

intestine (usually small intestine)

where are the majority of nutrients absorbed in the GI?

small intestines (small bowel)

duodenum

first part of the small intestine, between the stomach and the jejunum

jejunum

second part of the small intestine, between the duodenum and the ileum

ileum

third part of the small intestine, between the jejunum and the cecum

which part of the small intestine is proximal?

duodenum

which part of the small intenstine is distal?

ileum

where is the ilium?

it is part of the pelvic bone, do not confuse with ileum

where in the GI trract is water absorbed?

large intestine

cecum

first part of the large intestine, ileum opens into this, appendix is an offshoot of this

appendix

hangs off cecum and has no known function, can become inflammed due to clogging and must be removed before it ruptures

col/o

colon (large intestine)

ascending colon

portion of large intestine that extends UPWARD from the cecum toward the transverse colon

tranverse colon

the portion of the large intestine that passes horizontally ACROSS the abdomen from right to left from the ascending colon toward the descending colon

descending colon

the portion of the large intestine that goes DOWNWARD from the transverse colon to the sigmoid colon

sigmoid colon

portion of the large intestine (resembling an s) that headds from the desending colon and terminates at the rectum

colonoscopy

visual examination of the colon with a scope

rectum

A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated

anus

A muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the body

defecation

The process of excreting feces from the rectum through the anus; a bowel movement

-chezia

defecation, elimination of wastes

hematochezia

passage of fresh, bright red blood in the stool from the rectum
-cause is usually due to colitis, ulcers, or polyps in colon or rectum

melena

black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
-usually as a result of bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract such as a duodenal ulcer

-rrhea

flow, discharge

diarrhea

frequent discharge of loose, watery stools

steat-

fat, sebum

steatorrhea

discharge of fat in the feces, frothy, foul smelling fecal matter
-improper digestion or malabsorption of fat due to lack of pancreatic enzymes excreation from pancreatitis or from intestinal disease

hepat/o

liver

bile

yellowish-brown or green fluid produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and secreted into the small intestine to emulsify large fat globule
composed of pigments, cholesterol, bile salts

functions of liver

1. make bile
2. conjugates bilirubin
3. detoxifies blood
4. produce blood proteins
5. manage blood glucose levels

cholecyst

gallbladder

chole/o

bile, gall

cyst/o

bladder

cyt/o

cell

jaundice

yellowing of the skin, whites of the eyes and mucous membranes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood

bilirubin

Orange-yellow pigment in bile. It is formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die.

hyper-

excessive, above, more than normal

-emia

blood condition

hyperbilirubinemia

excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood, jaundice

gallbladder functions

stores/concentrates bile from the liver; contracts and secretes bile into the common bile duct to the duodenum

duct

tube or channel for conducting a liquid

hepatic duct

duct that leads from the liver to the common bile duct; transports bile

cystic duct

duct leading from the gallbladder to the common bile duct; carries bile

common bile duct

duct that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. cystic and hepatic ducts are tributaries to this duct. Also called the choledochus.

pancreatic duct

the main duct of the pancreas, carries the exocrine secretions of the pancreas (enzymes and bicarbonate) to the small intestine (dueodenum)

-creas

fleshy

pan-

All, entire

pancreas

organ that secretes digestive enzymes it is an accesory organ for digestion, it is an exocrine and endocrine gland

exocrine gland function

secrete substances through ducts

amyl/o

starch

-ase

enzyme

amylase

A digestive enzyme that breaks down starch into disaccharides. Amylase is secreted by salivary glands and by the pancreas.

lipase

digestive enzyme that breaks down lipids, secreted by pancreas

protease

an enzyme that braks down proteins, secreted by pancreas

what are the 3 main enzymes secreted by the pancreas?

lipase
protease
amylase

endocrine gland functions

secrete substances into the blood stream

insulin

a hormone produced by the pancreas and released in response to high blood glucose levels, Insulin promotes the use and storage of glucose by the body's tissues

anorexia

lack of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing,
-sensation feels like "a lump in the throat"
-can be caused by a motor disfunction in which esophageal peristalsis is not coordinated or because of physical obstruction

hemolysis

destruction of red blood cells

ascites

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
-common causes: cirrhosis, hear failure, venous hypertension, neoplasm, abdominal inflammatory disorders

herpetic stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpes virus. painful, fluid-filled blisters are produced by the infection and known as cold sores or fever blisters. HSV1, highly contagious

dysentery

painful, inflammed intestines (often occuring in the colon) commonly caused by bacterial infection (salmonella, shigellae) or amebae or viruses. symptoms are bloody stools and abdominal pain

diverticulum

pouch-like herniation of the colon through the muscular wall. when fecal matter gets trapped in the diverticula (pl) diverticulitis can occur causing pain and rectal bleeding

hemorroids

swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectal region, internal (within the rectum) or external (outside anal sphincter). caused by chronic pressure on anal veins

irritable bowel syndrome

IBS
-GI symptoms include: diarrhea, constipation, bloating, lower abdominal pain
-no pathology

inflammatory bowel disease

IBD
-chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract (ileum and colon)
-Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are forms
-symptoms: diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, weakness, weight loss

crohn's disease

type of IBD

ulcerative colitis

type of IBD with ulcers

colitis

inflammation of the colon

barium

substance used as a radiopaque (x-rays cannot pass through it) contrast medium for examination of digestive tract

barium swallow

X-ray study of the upper digestive tract performed by having the patient swallow a solution of barium, which highlights structures seen on the x-ray images.

upper gastrointestinal series

UGI-SBFT (soft bowel follow through)
x-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine obtained after administering barium by mouth

lower gastrointestinal series

barium enema
xray images of the rectum and colon are taken after the anal adminstraiton of barium

colonoscopy

visual examination of colon with an endoscope

sigmoidoscopy

visual examination of sigmoid colon with an endoscope

liver funtion tests

LFTs
test blood for presence of enymes ALT and AST and bilirubin pigment

ALT

Alanine transaminase (Formerly known as SGPT)
-enzyme measured to evaluate liver funtion

AST

aspartate transaminase (formerly known as SGOT)
-enzyme measured to evaluate liver function and heart disease

guaiac

chemical from the wood of trees that reacts with the presence of blood

stool guaiac

FOBT fecal occult blood test
aka Hemoccult
test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in stool

occult

hidden, difficult to see

-emisis

vomiting

-ptysis

spitting

-pepsia

digestion

-phagia

eating swallowing

NG

nasogastric

PEG

percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy

PO

by mouth, per mouth, orally

NPO

nothing by mouth, nothing per mouth, nothing orally

GERD

gastroesophageal reflux disease

PUD

peptic ulcer disease

choledoch/o

common bile duct
chole/o = gall, bile
doch/o = duct

lith/o

stone

-iasis

abnormal condition

choledocholithiasis

abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct

cholelithiasis

gallstones in the gallbladder

choledochotomy

surgical incision of the common bile duct

cholecystectomy

surgical removal of the gallbladder

gingiv/o

gum(s)

-procto

anus, rectum

colostomy

creation of an opening in the colon through the abdominal wall to create an abdominal anus allowing stool to bypass a diseased portion of the colon; performed to treat ulcerative colitis, cancer, or obstructions

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