Unit 2a - Chemistry & Biochemistry

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matter

that which has mass and occupies space

element

a pure substance made of only one kind of atom

compound

(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

atom

smallest particle of an element

proton

a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

electron

negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus

neutron

a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

ion

atom that has a positive or negative charge

ionic bond

bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

covalent bond

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

molecule

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

chemical reaction

process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals

reactants

the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction

products

the substances that are formed by the chemical change

polar molecule

molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end

structural formula

A type of molecular notation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representing covalent bonds.

molecular formula

a chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms.

hydrogen bond

weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms

cohesion

attraction between molecules of the same substance

adhesion

an attraction between molecules of different substances

solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

solute

the dissolved substance in a solution

aqueus solution

solution in which water is the solvent

acid

compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution. Has a pH value less than 7.

base

compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH+) in solution. Has a pH value greater than 7.

pH scale

a range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic)

neutral

Neither acidic nor basic. Has a pH value of 7.

organic compound

A compound that contains both carbon and hydrogen.

inorganic compound

A compound that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen.

monomer

a single unit that can join together with other single units to form polymers

dimer

a molecule composed of two monomers

polymer

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

dehydration synthesis

process where water is removed to put 2 smaller molecules together

hydrolysis

a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water.

carbohydrate

An organic compound containing C, H, and O. Includes sugars, starches, and fiber.

monosaccharide

a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate

glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues.

lipid

an organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes

steroid

a lipid molecule.
example: cholesterol

saturated fat

a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms; tend to be solid at room temperature.

unsaturated fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms; tend to be liquid at room temperature.

indicator

(chemistry) a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance

bromothymol blue

the indicator that turns yellow in acids, and blue in bases

phenolphthalein

indicator which is clear in acidic solution and pink in basic solution

protein

an organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; ie. enzymes, antibodies, receptors, pigments, hormones.

amino acid

monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups

polypeptide

A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.

peptide bond

A bond that links amino acids together in a protein.

denaturation

a process in which a protein loses it's shape, thereby becoming biologically inactive. It occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt, and temperature.

catalyst

substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

enzyme

protein that speeds up a chemical reaction

substrate

The reactant on which an enzyme works.

active site

region of an enzyme into which a particular substrate fits

glycogen

A polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals that stores extra energy.

starch

A polysaccharide in plants that stores extra energy.

glycerol

with fatty acids, make up the building blocks of lipids

fatty acid

with glycerol, make up the building blocks of lipids

cellulose

a polysaccharide that makes up the cell wall of plants (fiber)

chitin

a polysaccharide that is used to build the exoskeletons of animals and the cell wall of fungal cells

antibody

a protein that is produced during an immune response

pigment

a protein that has a specific function in an organism and produces color

protein hormone

a protein that acts as a chemical messenger in the body

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