what makes something alive?
1. Living organisms take in energy and/or nutrients from the environment.
2. Living organisms sense and respond to the environment in controlled ways.
3. Living organisms grow and reproduce.
4. Living organisms contain genetic material.
5. Living organisms demonstrate homeostasis: the ability to regulate the internal environment to keep it within certain limits.
6. Living organisms have the capacity to evolve.
the three dimensional shape of a molecule.
molecules with the same order of bonding but different spatial relationships among the atoms.
Stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other
implies that if one enantiomer fits the other enantiomer will not fit. examples: enzyme/substrate, hormone/receptor, antibody/antigen
chains of carbon atoms covalently bonded together with two hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon.
hydrocarbons with a carboxyl group
3 fatty acid chains are covalently bonded to glycerol. rich energy source, found in butter, lard, oils, animal fat
provide energy for living organisms; each carbon has one water; monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
one sugar; at least two hydroxyl groups. a carbonyl group
two monosaccharides covalently bound togeth
uses of disaccharides
Short term energy storage; Transport sugars from one group of cells to another group of cells.
formed when water is split out and the two sugars are linked together by oxygen
long chains of sugar molecules covalently bound together.
functions of polysaccharides: starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin
energy storage in plants, energy storage in animals, structural support in plants, exoskeleton in arthropods
in starch, molecules of glucose are joined in
alpha-1,4 glycosidic linkages
Starches form ___ which allow them to ___ forming ___
helical shapes, pack together tightly, dense granules in cells
long, unbranched chain of D-glucose molecules connected by alpha-1,4 linkages.
is a long, unbranched chain of D-glucose molecules connected by alpha-1,4 linkages on the chain with alpha-1,6 linkages at the branch points every 24-30 residues
a branched polymer of D-glucose molecules.
- The chains are alpha-1,4 linkages
- The branch points are alpha-1,6 linkages that occur every 8-12 residues.
an unbranched polymer of glucose; residues are linked by beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds
structural polysaccharide; beta-1,4 linkages