← Physiology of Respiration (4) Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All torque a turning or twisting force elasticity the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed gravity the force that pulls objects toward each other. spirometer measures lung volume manometer measures pressure rate flow air in and out of the lungs (volume) respiration the oxygenation of blood and elimination of carbon dioxide ventilation movement of air distribution 300 million alveoli getting oxygen out perfusion 6 billion capillaries diffusion gas exchange across alveolar - capillary membrane respiratory cycle 12-18 cycles per minute; quiet tidal respiration; 500 mL of air; 1/2 L of air cartilaginous conducting airway complete at birth, grows in diameter and length; alveoli will increase 25 million to 300 volumes amount of air each compartment can hold capacities combinations of volumes; functional combinations Tidal Volume (TV) volume of air during a cycle (passive breathing) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) volume that can be inhaled (extra volume in) Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) volume that can be expired (extra volume out) Residual Volume (RV) volume remaining in the lungs after maximum exhale; dead air space Vital Capacity (VC) total volume that can be inspired after a maximum expiriation (IRV + ERV + TV) Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) volume of air remaining in the body after a passive exhalation (ERV + RV) Total Lung Capacity (TLC) sum of all the volumes (TV + ERV + IRV + RV) Inspiratory Capacity (IC) maximum inspiratory volume possible after tidal expiration (TV + IRV) Dead Air Space inspired air that fills the respiratory tract but never reaches the alveoli of the lungs. passive forces elasticity, gravity, torque active forces muscles, abdominal viscera is squeezed to push diaphragm downward measurement of respiration rate of flow, volume, lung capacity, pressure abdominal muscles internal obliques, external obliques, transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis, abdominal aponeurosis thoracic muscles internal intercostals, subcostals, transverse thoracis, serratus posterior inferior abdominal aponeurosis point of attachment for all abdominal muscles alveolar pressure pressure within the individual alveolus; vocal folds are open (abducted) intraoral and subglottal pressure equals alveolar pressure interpleural pressure pressure in the space between the parietal and visceral pleura; stays negative; lungs, inner thorax, and diaphragm are wrapped in lining subglottal pressure the air pressure your lungs apply to the inferior aspects of the vocal folds intraoral pressure air pressure measured within the oral cavity respiration for speech inhalation is 10%; exhalation is 90% respiration for life inhalation takes 40%; exhalation takes 60% checking action how we monitor, save, reserve exhalation. restrain and check the exhalation to allow for respiratory control during speech. allows us to have a constant airflow (exhale) during speech.