Human Physiology of the Kidney

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The urinary system includes

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

The urinary system doesn't include:

adrenal glands

Which of the following waste products excreted in urine is the result of metabolic reactions in muscle cells

creatinine

What is normally excreted in the urine?

vitamins, drugs, excess ions, uric acid, urea, creatinine

Which of the following is not normally excreted in urine?

protein, glucose

When urine leaves the kidney, it enters the

urinary bladder

Descending limb and ascending limb are best associated with

the loop of Henle

As fluid passes through a nephron it undergoes modification by the cells lining the tubule. In which of the following locations does this modification of filtrate not occur?

the loop of Henle

Which of the following is not normally a component of the glomerular filtrate?

protein

Glomerular filtrate consists primarily of water, excess salts (sodium ions), glucose, and a waste product of the body called urea.

Which of the following is not normally a component of the glomerular filtrate?

red blood cells

Most reabsorption of water and nutrients from the glomerular filtrate occurs in the

Proximal tubule or proximal convoluted tubule

Which of the following processes involved in the formation of urine is especially important in the excretion of toxic substances and drugs

tubular secretion

Which of the following is not reabsorbed into the blood by the process of tubular reabsorption?

Creatinine is not reabsorbed at all as it is too large.

Bicarbonates seem to be reabsorbed, but it isn't. Bicarbonate balances ph. Reabsorption is sensitive to PH, so a drugs which polar will not be reabsorbed

ADH

causes the cells of the collecting ducts to be more more permeable to water, thereby increasing reabsorption of water into tissue fluids and blood stream

Glucose

Filtered, and reabsorbed, but not secreted

What is reabsorbed?

Water and filtered solutes which includes chloride ions, sodium ions, potassium, monosaccharides (glucose). uric acid, and 40-60% urea is reabsorbed.
Most amino acits are reabsorbed?

Which of the followig statements about the renal pyrmids is false

They contain glomeruli

Reabsorption of Water through the tubules occurs by

osmosis

Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidneys?

regulation of plasma temperature

Antidiuretic hormone promotes water retretention

and the excretion of a highly concentrated urine.

What is not reabsorbed into the blood by the process of tubular reabsorption?

bicarbonate (says it seems to but isn't)
creatinine
inulin

Antidiuretic hormone promotes the retention of water by stimulating

the active transport of sodium.

Aldosterone stimulates sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion in

the distal convoluted tubule and the cortical collecting duct.

Substance X has a clearance greater than zero but less than that of inulin. What can you conclude about substance X?

It is filtered and partially reabsorbed.

About 65% of the glomerular ultra filtrate is reabsorbed in

the proximal tubule.

Which of the following factors oppose filtration from the glomerules?

plasma osmotic pressure

The return of molecules from the tubules to the blood is called

reabsorption.

Glomerular filtration would be decreased by

decreased glomerular hydrostatic pressure.

The majority of reabsorption occurs in the

proximal convoluted tubule

Concurrent muliplication occurs by the actions of the

loop of Henle

Decreased glumeular filtration would

decrease plasma creatine rate

What is true about the renal pyramids?

They are located in the medula.
They contain collecting ducts.
They empty urine into the calycees

Excessive aldosterone secretion would induce:

Decreased plasma potassium

The ability of the kidneys to remove molecules from the blood plasma by excreting them in the urine. The process of reabsorption decreases renal clearance, while the process of secretion increases renal clearance

Renal Clearance

Which of the following actively transports of sodium and is impermeable to water?

ascending limb of Henle

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