the inability to retrieve previously stored information. Forgetting results from failure to encode, decay of stored memories, or inability to access stored information.
learning some items prevents retrieving others, especially when the items are similar.
the process by which old memories prevent the retrieval of newer memories.
the process by which new memories prevent the retrieval of older memories.
the tendency to forget unpleasant or traumatic memories hidden in the unconscious mind according to Freud.
the often temporary inability to access information accompanied by a feeling that the information is in LTM.
inability to put new information into explicit memory resulting from damage to hippocampus; no new semantic memories are formed.
memory loss for a segment of the past, usually around the time of an accident.
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering.
thinking about how you think.
Trial and error
trying possible solutions and discarding those that fail to solve the problems.
problem-solving strategy that involves a step-by-step procedure that guarantees a solution to certain types of problems.
a problem-solving strategy used as a mental shortcut to quickly simplify and solve a problem, but that does not guarantee a correct solution.
the sudden appearance (often creative) or awareness of a solution to a problem.
reasoning from the general to the specific.
reasoning from the specific to the general.
barriers to problem solving that occur when we apply only methods that have worked in the past rather than trying new or different strategies.
when we are not able to recognize novel uses for an object because we are so familiar with its common use.
systematic way of thinking that is responsible for an error in judgment.
a tendency to estimate the probability of certain events in terms of how readily they come to mind.
tendency to judge the likelihood of things according to how they relate to a prototype.
the way an issue is stated. How an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
tendency to be influenced by a suggested reference point, pulling our response toward that point.
tendency to notice or seek information that already supports our preconceptions and ignore information that refutes our ideas.
the tendency to hold onto a belief after the basis for the belief is discredited.
the tendency for our preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, making illogical conclusions seem valid or logical conclusions seem invalid.
the tendency to falsely report, after the event, that we correctly predicted the outcome of the event.
the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
the ability to think about a problem or idea in new and unusual ways to come up with unconventional solutions.
putting aside a problem temporarily; allows the problem to solver to look at the problem from a different perspective.
generating lots of possible solutions to a problem without making prior evaluative judgments.
thinking that produces many alternatives or ideas.
conventional thinking directed toward a single correct solution.
communication system based on words and grammar; spoken, written, or gestured words and the way they are combined to communicate meaning from person to person and to transmit civilization's accumulated knowledge.
smallest unit of sound in spoken language.
the smallest unit of language that has meaning.
a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
rules that are used to order words into grammatically sensible sentences.
a set of rules we use to derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.
an infant's spontaneous production of speech sounds; begins around 4 months old.
one-word utterances that convey meaning; characteristic of a 1 year old.
meaningful two-word sentences; usually a noun and a verb, and usually in the correct order uttered by 2 year olds.
application of grammatical rules without making appropriate exceptions.
language is developed by imitating sounds we hear to create words.
idea that human brain has an innate capacity for acquiring language (language acquisition device) possibly during a critical period of time after birth, and that children are born with a universal sense of grammar.
Social interactivist perspective
babies are biologically equipped for learning language which may be activated or constrained by experience.
Linguistic relativity hypothesis
our language guides and determines our thinking. It is more accurate to say that language influences thought.