Volstead Act and Ratification
The effort to "keep a devil out of the mouth of America" culminated in the ________ and _______ of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution
67 to 270 billion
Total retail amount spent yearly on alcohol beverages in the US has remained fairly constant at about (how much money)
Children and adolescents
1 to 3 million ______ and _____ are thought to be abusing or addicted to alcohol
1 in 13
About ____ in ____ people at some time in their life will have such a problem with a controlled substance they are dependent on it.
Society and cultural
_____ and _____ background of an individual seem to have a great deal to do with what kinds of pharmacological and extrapharmacological effects will occur with use of addictive substances.
The mental and emotional state of the user, including expectations, intelligence, personality, feelings, and so on.
The social and physical enviroment of the user at the time of the use. It can be defined as the immediate suroundings.
Set and Settings
____ and ____ define which situations are considered appropriate for drug use and which are not.
MacAndrew and Edgerton found that people would not automatically lose their inhibitions and violate norms due to ingestion of alcohol unless the particular _____ permitted it.
Alcohol has the longevity, legacy and legislative attempts to control or promote than any other drug... This is called?
There are only limited conditions under which one can go to jail for posession of alcohol.... This is called
Indirect financial costs
____ due to job absenteeism and firings; family violence and divorce; hospital care, law enforcement, judicial and correctional activities related to alcoholism are most likely greater than any other public health issue.
The pernicious effects of alcoholism cuts a wide physiological path through its victims.
clear cut, treatment
There is no single, _______ model or _____ approach based theory or research that holds sway over another
Final Common Pathway
Doweiko uses the term _________ to advise that each of the theories of drug addiction contains an element of truth and efficacy.
Behavioral Learning Model
Drinking is caused and maintained by the association of alcohol intake with positive rewarding experiences.
This method does not give equal relevance to biological, social, and psychological aspects of addiction.
This method operates on the assumption that thoughts or beliefs are the primary causative factors in substance abuse.
In this model, drug use is seen as an aberrant condition afflicting otherwise healthy people, and exposure to the drug is seen as leading to physiological addiction.
This method proposes an orderly progression from one drug to another and paricularly applies to young people as they move heavier and heavier drug use.
This method proposes an inherited and transmitted predisposition to become a substance abuser.
In the view of this model, the rewards of living in an altered state of consciousness outweigh all other costs of a destructive , drug dependent life.
This model suggests that alcoholism begins in self- prescription and physician prescription of alcohol and other drugs as tranquilizing agents to relieve acute or chronic pain symptoms.
Problem behavior Model
This theory states that the more problematic the behavior of the individual, the more likely the individual is to come into contact with people, places, and instances where drugs are available.
This model posits that certain pathological personality traits established early in childhood predispose the individual to alcoholism.
This model proposes that a constellation of factors involving an individual's personality, enviroment, and behavior are interrelated and organized so as to develop a dynamic state designated as problem behavior proneness.
Sanctioned Use Model
This model believes the overperscription of "feel better" pills gives an "ok" to other "feel better" addictions.
Stress coping Model
This model sees drugs as a substitute for effective behavioral and cognitive coping skills when the individual is placed under stress.
Physically, chemical addiction is a celluar change that occurs with the increased use of most depressant drugs.
A more preferred term, at least by many psychologists, to indicate abuse, dependency, and so forth.
A highly complex condition characterized by preoccupation with alcohol and loss of control over its consumption.
Any person who has a dependence on drugs such that the substance governs his or her life to the extent that it severely impairs the ability to function psychologically and physically.
Based on the chemical dependent's need for care to survive and the caretaker's need to control the addict's behavior.
A cluster of cognitive,behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues use of the substance despite major problems.
Any person who knowingly practices specific behaviors that allow the chemical dependent to continue the abuse.
The intake of a chemical substance into the body with the goal of somehow altering one's state of consciousness
The production of physical and psychological symptoms by the body on cessation or reduction in use of the drug.
Alcoholics speak in generalizations or theoretical terms in an impersonal manner and thereby remove themselves from hurtful feelings.
This occurs as a defense against perceived threat and is one of the most harmful defense mechanisms because it distances dependents from their true feelings.
Alcoholics deal with threatening and hurtful events by burying them in unconscious memory.
This person achieves pathological satisfication by being a martyr to the cause of maintaining the relationship.
subsidizes and attempts to control the chemical dependent by doing drugs with the chemical dependent or giving money for drugs.
This is the little adult who takes care of the alcoholic, the spouse and the other children
The Lost Child
This child follows directions, handles whatever has to be handled, and adjusts to the circumstances, however dysfunctional they are.
The Family Mascot
This child placates and comforts everybody in the family and makes them feel good.