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angi/o, vas/o, vascul/o

vessel

aort/o

aorta

arteri/o

artery

arther/o

fatty (lipid) paste

arti/o

atrium

cardi/o

heart

coron/o

circle or crown

my/o

muscle

pector/o, steth/o

chest

sphygm/o

pulse

thromb/o

clot

ven/o, phleb/o

vein

varic/o

swollen, twisted vein

ventricul/o

ventricle (belly or pouch)

atrium

upper right or left chamber of the heart

endocardium

membrane lining the cavities of the heart

epicardium

membrane forming the outer layer of the heart

interatrial septum

partition between the right and left atria

interventricular septum

partition between right and left ventricles

myocardium

heart muscle

pericardium

protective sac enclosing the heart composed of 2 layers with fluid between

visceral pericardium

layer closest to the heart (visceral = pertaining to organ)

parietal pericardium

outer layer (parietal = pertaining to wall)

pericardial cavity

fluid-filled cavity between the pericardial layers

ventricle

lower right or left chamber of the heart

heart valves

structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the oneway flow of blood

aortic valve

heart valve between the left ventricle and the aorta

mitral valve or bicuspid valve

heart valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle

pulmonary semilunar valve

heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery (luna=moon)

tricuspid valve

valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle

valves of the veins

valves located at intervals within the lining of veins, especially in the legs, which constrict with muscle action to move the blood returning to the heart

arteries

vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles

aorta

large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle

arterioles

small vessels that receive blood from the arteries

capillaries

tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules

venules

small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins

veins

vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules

systemic circulation

circulation of blood through out the body to deliver O2 and nutrients to body tissues

coronary circulation

circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle ( O2 and Nutrients to the HEART MUSCLE)

pulmonary circulation

circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein providing exchange of gases

diastole

to expand
period during the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria

systole

to contract
period during the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and the pulmonary artery

normotension

normal BP (blood pressure)

hypotension

low BP

hypertension

high BP

Sinoatrial (SA) node

the pacemaker (highly specialized, neurological tissue impeded in the walla of the right atriup;responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conductions of impulses to the AV node)

atrioventricular (AV) node

amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His (neurological fibers) --- neurological tissue at the center of the heart

buncle of His

neurological fibers from the AV node to the right and left bundle branches that fire impulses from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers

Purkinje fibers/network

fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles causing them to contract

polarization

resting (resting state of a myocardial cell)

depolarization

change of a myocardial cell from a polarized resting state to a state of contraction

repolarization

recharging of the myocardial cell from a contracted state back to a resting state

normal sinus rhythm

regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated by the SA node

aneurysm

a widening; a bulging of the wall of heart, aorta, or artery

saccular aneurysm

sac like bulge on one side (ball)

fusiform aneurysm

spindle shaped bulge (football)

dissecting aneurysm

a split or tear of the vessel wall

angina pectoris

chest pain (cause by temporary loss of O2 blood to heart muscle, narrowing of coronary arteries)

arteriosclerosis

thicking loss of elasticity and hardening of arterial walls

atherosclerosis

form of arteriosclerosis due to build up of fatty substances that harden with in the walls of arteries

atheromatous plaque

a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the build up of fat (lipids)

claudication

to limp; pain in a limb (calf) while walking after rest-inadequate blood supply

constriction

compression of a part that causes stenosis (narrowing)

diaphoresis

profuse sweating

embolus

a clot carried in the blood stream that obstructs flow of blood when it lodges

heart murmur

an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves

infarct

to stuff (localized area of necrosis-condition of tissue death, caused by ischemia resulting from occlusion of a blood vessel

ischemia

to hold back blood (decrease blood flow to tissue caused by constrictuion of a blood vessel)

perfusion deficit

lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing

occlusion

plugging; an obstruction or closing off

palpitation

subjective experience of pounding skipping or racing heartbeats

stenosis

condition of narrowing of a part

thrombus

stationary blood clot

vegetation

to grow-abnormal growth of tissue around a valve-may be result of infection

acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

active process of atherosclerotic plaque build up or formation of thrombus/spasm within a coronary artery - causes reduction of blood flow to myocardial tissue.
Unstable angina, pathological events lead to myocardial infraction

arrhythmia/dysrhythmia

irregularity or loss of rhythm of heartbeat

bradycardia

slow heart rate (less than 60beats/min)

tachycardia

fast heart rate (greater than 100 beats/min)

fibrillation

chaotic irregular contractions of the heart

premature ventricular contraction

ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node

bacterial endocarditis

bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or heart valves

cardiac tamponade

compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac, may cause rupture of blood vessels within heart

cardiomyopathy

heart disease

congenital anomaly of the heart

malformations of the heart present at birth

atrial septal defect (ASD)

an opening in the septum separating the atria

coarctation of the aorta

narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta - limited flow of blood to lower parts of body

patent ducts arteriosus

an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ducts arteriosus to close after birth (open heart at birth)

ventricular septal defect

an opening in the septum separating the ventricles

Congestive heart failure/left ventricular failure

failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet demands of the body resulting in a bottleneck of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins causing edema in lower portions of the body

cor pulmonale / right venticular failure

enlargement of the right ventricle resulting from chronic disease within the lungs that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs

coronary artery disease

a condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood to the myocardium

hypertension

high blood pressuree

essential/primary hypertension

no single cause for high bp-risks=smoking obesity cholestorol hereditry

secondary hypertension

high bp because of another disease

mitral valve prolapse

backward flow of blood b/c valve does not close completely

myocardial infraction

heart attack, death of myocardial tissue (infraction) caused by ischemia (loss of blood flow) due to occulation (plugging) of a coronary artery

myocarditis/pericarditis

inflammation of myocardium/pericardium

rheumatic heart disease

damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever

sudden cardiac arrest

cessation of cardiac output - result of ventricular fibrillation

deep vein thrombosis

formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body - femoral/iliac veins

phlebitis

inflammation of vein

thrombophlebitis

inflammation of a vein associated with clot formation

varicose veins

abnormally swollen twisted veins with defective valves (legs)

auscultation

listening to body with a stethoscope

gallop

abnormal heart sound-abnormal venticular contraction

electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)

electrical picture of the heart

stress EKG

during excercise

holter ambulatory monitor

portable electrocardiograph worn that monitors electrical acivity of the heart over 24 hours - periodic abnormalities

intracardiac electrophysiological study

invasive procedure involving placement of a catheter guided electrodes with the heart to evaluate and map electrical conduction of cardiac arrhythmias-intracardiac catheter ablation may treat the arrhythemia

intracardiac catheter ablation

use of radio frequency waves sent through a catheter within the heart to treat arrhythmias by selectively destroying myocardial tissue at sites that generate abnormal electrical pathways

magnetic resonance angiography

magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and blood vessels for evaluation of pathology

nuclear medicine imaging

radioactive isotopes to visualize structures and analyze functions

myocardial radionuclide perfusion scan

scan of heart after radioactive isotope is inserted to see blood flow in heart - coronary artery disease

multiple gated acquisiton scan (MUGA)

nuclear image of the beating heart in motion made as radioactive isotopes are injected in the bloodstream and traced through the hearts chambers-pumping functions of ventricles

positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the heart

specialized nuclear isotopes and computed tomographic techniques to produce perfusion images and to study the cellular metabolism of the heart

radiology

x ray imaging

angiography

process of x ray imaging a blood vessel after injection of contrast medium most commonly after catheter placement

angiogram

record obtained by angiography

coronary angiogram

xray imaging of blood vessels of the heart using catheter to inject contrast

arteriogram

x ray imaging of particular artery

aortogram

xray image of aorta

venogram

xray image of vein

cardiac catheterization

putting a catheter (narrow tube) through vein or artery into the heart to withdraw samples of blood to measure pressures within the heart chambers or vessels and to inject contrast media for fluoroscopic radiography and cine film imaging of the chambers of the heart and coronary arteries

left heart catheterization

xray imaging of the left ventricular cavity and coronary arteries

right heart catheterization

measurement of o2 saturated and pressure readings of the right side of the heart

ventriculogram

xray image of the ventricles

stroke volume

measurement of the amount of blood ejected from a ventricle in one contraction

cardiac output

measurement of the amount of blood ejected per minute from either ventricle of the heart

ejection fraction

measurement of the volume percentage of left ventricular contents ejected with each contraction

computed tomographic angiography

specialized noninvasive 3D computed tomographic scan of the heart and circulation of the bloodvessels

sonography

sonographic imaging (ultrasound)

echocardiography (stress)

recording sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion (physical excercise)

transesophageal echocardiogram

echocardiogram of the heart after placement of an ultrasonic transducer at the end of an endoscope inside the esophagus

doppler sonography

presence of deep vein thrombosis or carotid insuffiency

coronary artery bypass graft

grafting a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body to bypass an occuluded coronary artery

anastomosis

opening the joining of 2 blood vessels to allow flow from one to ther other

endarterectomy

surgical removal of the lining of an artery to clear a blockage caused by a clot or athersclerotic plaque buildup

valve replacement

place artificial valves (tissue valve or mechanical valve)

valvuloplasty

surgical repair of a defective heart valve

percutaneous coronary intervention

placing catheter

angioscopy

use of a flexible fiberoptic angioscope assess a lesion

vascular endoscopy

guided through specific blood vessel to visually assess a lesion and to select mode of therapy

atherectomy

excision of fatty lipid

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

a method for treatment the narrowing of a coronary artery by inserting a specialized catheter with a baloon attachments and inflating the baloon to dialate and open the narrowed portion of the vessel and restore blood flow to the myocardium-stent

intravascular stent placement

implantation of a device used to reinforce the wall of a vessel and assure its patency most often used to treat stenosis or dissection (split in vessel wall)

defibrillation

termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivering an electrical stimulus to the heart

cardioversion

restoration of a fast or irregular heart rate to a normal rhythem (pharmaceutical means or delivery of electrical energy)

implantable cardioverter defibrillator

implanted battery operated device with rate sensing leads-initiates an electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia

paremaker

used to treat bradycardia

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