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Bio 180 Mastering Biology Test from BYU Idaho. Mitosis, Meiosis, Cancer, and Genetics. Unit 4. DAT prep Biology section.

G2 phase

A nuclear envelope bounds the nucleus.

G2 phase

The nucleus contains one or more nucleoli.

G2 phase

Two centrosomes have formed by the replication of a single centrosome.

G2 phase

In animal cells each centrosome features 2 centrioles.

G2 phase

You cannot see the chromosomes that duplicated during S phase because the chromosomes have not condensed.

Prophase

The chromatin fibers become more tightly coiled and condense into discrete visible chromosomes.

Prophase

Nucleoli disappear.

Prophase

Each of the duplicated chromosomes appear as identical sister chromatids which are joined together at their centromeres.

Prophase

They are joined together along their arms by cohesins (sister chromatid cohesins).

Prometaphase

The nuclear envelope fragments.

Prometaphase

The microtubules extending from each centrosome can now invade the nuclear area.

Prometaphase

Chromosomes become even more condensed.

Prometaphase

Each of the 2 chromatids of each chromosome has a kinetochore (specialized protein structure located at centromere).

Prometaphase

Some microtubules attach to kinetochores and become "kinetochore microtubules".

Prometaphase

Kinetochore microtubules jerk the chromosomes back and forth.

Prometaphase

Non-kinetochore microtubules interact with non-kinetochore microtubules from the opposite pole of the spindle.

Metaphase

Lasts 20 minutes. (longest phase of mitoses).

Metaphase

Centrosomes at opposite poles of the cell.

Metaphase

Chromosomes centromeres line up on a plate (imaginary equidistant line).

Anaphase

Lasts a few minutes (shortest phase of mitosis).

Anaphase

Begins when cohesion proteins cleave.

Anaphase

When the cohesion proteins cleave the 2 sister chromatids separate from each other.

Anaphase

Each chromatid becomes a chromosome.

Anaphase

The daughter chromosomes move towards the cell poles as kinetochore microtubules shorten.

Anaphase

The chromosomes are attached to the kinetochore microtubules at their centromeres so they move center first towards poles.

Anaphase

The cell elongates as the microtubules lengthen.

Anaphase

Ends when the two ends of the cell have equivalent complete collections chromosomes.

Telophase

2 daughter nuclei form in the cell.

Telophase

Nuclear envelopes form from endomembrane system.

Telophase

Nucleoli reappear.

Telophase

Chromosomes become less condensed.
Mitosis is complete (mitosis = the division of the nuclei).

Telophase

The cell membrane started dividing (actually started during telophase).

Cytokinesis

The 2 daughter cells appear

Cytokinesis

In animal cells a cleavage furrow forms pinches off the cells.

Genome

The DNA of the cell.

Somatic

All cells in an animal except reproductive cells.

Animal gamete

Haploid cells

# Chromosomes in somatic

46 chromosomes

# of pairs of chromosomes in somatic

23 pairs

(n)

the number of chromosomes in a gamete. The haploid number.

Chromatin

what chromosomes are made of. DNA and protein combined. The proteins help maintain shape of chromosomes and help control gene activity.

Sister Chromatids

Either of two copies of a duplicated chromosome attached to each other by proteins at the centromere and, sometimes, along the arms. While joined, two of these make up one chromosome; chromatids are eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.

Centromere

The specialized region of the chromosome where two sister chromatids are most closely attached.

Mitosis

A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

Meiosis

A modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of two rounds of cell division but only one round of DNA replication.

Mitosis

conserves chromosome number by allocating replicated chromosomes equally to each of the daughter nuclei.

Meiosis

results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.

Cytokinesis

The division of the cytoplasm.

Cytokinesis

forms two separate daughter cells

Cytokinesis

occurs immediately after mitosis, meiosis I, or meiosis II.

Mitotic spindle

An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.

Chromosome

A cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins. (In bacteria it usually consists of a single circular DNA molecule and associated proteins. It is found in the nucleoid region, which is not membrane bounded.)

Centrosome

Structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells, important during cell division; functions as a microtubule-organizing center. It has two centrioles.

Aster

A radial array of short microtubules that extends from each centrosome toward the plasma membrane in an animal cell undergoing mitosis.

Kinetochore

A structure of proteins attached to the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.

Metaphase plate

An imaginary plane midway between the two poles of a cell on which the centromeres of all the duplicated chromosomes are located.

Binary fission

A method of asexual reproduction by "division in half." In prokaryotes.

Binary fission

Does not involve mitosis; but in single-celled eukaryotes that undergo this, mitosis is part of the process.

Mitotic M phase

The phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis.

Interphase

The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing.

Interphase

Accounts for 90% of the cell cycle

Interphase

cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase.

G1 phase

The first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle

G1 phase

consists of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.

S phase

The synthesis phase of the cell cycle

S phase

the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.

G2 phase

The second gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle

G2 phase

Consists of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.

Mitotic phase

M phase. Mitosis divides the cell.

Mitosis phases

Prophase, Prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase/cytokinesis

Prophase

chromatin condenses, the mitotic spindle begins to form, and the nucleolus disappears, but the nucleus remains intact.

Prometaphase

Discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear, the nuclear envelope fragments, and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes.

Metaphase

The spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase plate.

Anaphase

The chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell.

Telophase

Daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun.

Diploid cells

(2N) have two complete sets of chromosomes. The body cells (somatic cells) of animals

Haploid cells

have one complete set of chromosomes. In animals, gametes (sperm and eggs).

Homologous chromosomes

are two chromosomes that are the same. This happens because diploid organisms have two of each chromosome. One inherited from the individual's mother and the other one was inherited from the individual's father.

Reproduction

why single-celled organisms divide

reproduction and variation

why multicellular organisms divide

Centromere

where the microtubules used to construct the spindle come from

S phase

phase when a centrosome duplicates

Telophase

Cytokinesis typically occurs during this

G1 phase

Conditions in cell favor degredation of cyclin during this

G1 phase

CDK component of MPF is recycled

S phase

Synthesis of cyclin begins late during this

G2 phase

Synthesis of cyclin did not begin here but continues through here

G2 phase

Cyclin accumulates

MPF

Cyclin combines with CDK to form this

Metaphase

MPF activity peaks during

Cyclin

A cellular protein that plays an important role in regulating the cell cycle. Concentration begins to build up during S phase. And then meets its peek during mitosis—then drops off.

CDK

A protein kinase that is active only when attached to a particular cyclin.

MPF

Maturation-promoting factor

MPF

a protein complex required for a cell to progress from late interphase to mitosis. The active form consists of cyclin and a protein kinase. Activity reaches peak during Mitosis.

MPF

Causes phosphorylation of the nuclear lamina.

Growth factor

A protein that must be present in the extracellular environment (culture medium or animal body) for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells.

Growth factor

A local regulator that acts on nearby cells to stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation.

Density dependent inhibition

The phenomenon observed in normal animal cells that causes them to stop dividing when they come into contact with one another.

PDGF

Platlet derived growth factor.

PDGF

Stimulated during injury to grow tissue back.

Transformation

The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell.

Transformation

A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.

Benign tumor

A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of its origin.

Malignant tumor

is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs.

Metastasis

The spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site.

Genetics

The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.

Gamete

A haploid reproductive cell, such as an egg or sperm.

Gamete

unites with another one during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.

Zygote

Produced when 2 gametes unite during sexual reproduction

Locus

A specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located.

Karyotype

A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.

Sister chromatids

Either of two copies of a duplicated chromosome attached to each other by proteins at the centromere and, sometimes, along the arms. While joined, two sister chromatids make up one chromosome; chromatids are eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.

Homologous chromosomes

A pair that have the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.

Autosomes

A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex; not a sex chromosome.

Zygote

The diploid product of the union of haploid gametes during fertilization; a fertilized egg.

Recombinant chromosomes

A chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from two parents into a single chromosome.

Checkpoint

A control point in the cell cycle where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle.

G0

Where the cell is no longer proceeding (unless triggered like if damage occurs)

Cancer

A malignant growth or tumor resulting from such a division of cells

G0

Most cells are here

cell fusion experiments

Showed that the order of events during the cell cycle are dependent upon the presence or absence of activators.

Checkpoint

Internal controls

G2 phase

Checkpoint

G1 phase

Checkpoint

Metaphase

Checkpoint

G1 phase

First restriction point

CDK

phosphorylates proteins

Density dependent inhibition

as cells become more numerous, the proteins from one cell cross membranes and control the division of neighboring cells

Mitotic Spindle

Vinblastine is a drug used to treat cancer. It interferes with the assembly of microtubules; therefore, its effectiveness in treating cancer must be related to.

Cyclin

MPF is shut off when this is destroyed

Somatic

Produced my mitosis in animals

Gametes

Produced by Meiosis in animals

Mitosis

Meiosis 2 behavior is similar to this

Synapsis

The pairing and physical connection of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.

Chiasma

The X-shaped, microscopically visible region where homologous nonsister chromatids have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis, the two homologs remaining associated due to sister chromatid cohesion.

Tetrad

A group of four closely associated chromatids of a homologous pair formed by synapsis.

Synaptonemal complex

a protein structure that forms between two pairs of sister chromatids during meiosis and that is thought to mediate chromosome pairing, synapsis, and recombination (crossing-over)

Meiosis I

The first division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms.

Meiosis I

Results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.

Meiosis II

The second division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms.

Meiosis II

Results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.

Meiosis II

Results in four daughter cells.

Meiosis II

Chromatids are no longer identical

Character

An observable heritable feature.

Trait

Any detectable variant in a genetic character.

True-breeding

Referring to plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate.

Hybridization

In genetics, the mating, or crossing, of two true-breeding varieties.

P generation

The parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance; "parental."

F1 generation

The first filial, or hybrid, offspring in a series of genetic crosses.

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