Pharm 32-Anticoagulation

Created by Melina77 

Upgrade to
remove ads

13 terms

anticoagulant drugs

interfere with the clotting cascade and prolong blood clotting time; vary by route and method of action: parenteral (prevent fibrinogen to fibrin) and oral (prevent synthesis of factors that need vitamin K); prototype: heparin

heparin

anticoagulant; promotes factor X to prevent conversion of prothrombin to thrombin so no clot forms; can be IV or SC (SC is low molec weight); adv: bleeding and thrombocytopenia; safe in pregnancy; monitor for high aPTT; antidote is protamine sulfate

warfarin

used prophylactically for long term risk of thrombus after mitral valve replacement or venous stasis; blocks vitamin K; adv: bleeding and hemorrhage; fetal warfarin syndrome may occur; P-450 variations alter it; Vitamin K is antidote; monitor PT and INR

antiplatelet drugs

used when overactive platelets pose risk for hypercoagulation; reduce platelet aggregation to prolong bleeding time; prototype: clopidogrel

clopidogrel

used to reduce atherosclerotic events; NO active bleeding disorders; adv: bleeding, GI distress most common, neutropenia; caution younger than 18; for pts who can't tolerate aspirin

hemorheologic drugs

act on RBCs to reduce blood viscosity and increase RBC flexibility; helps prevent thrombus and allows RBCs to enter microcirculation; treat peripheral vascular disease; prototype: pentoxifylline

pentoxifylline

hemorheologic drug; manage intermittent claudication from PVD, can walk longer without pain, full effects seen 4 to 8 weeks, smoking limits effectiveness; adv: CNS, CV, GI; NO hypersensitive to methylxanthines

Thrombolytic drugs

assist in breaking down formed blood clots in pts with MI, PE, ischemic stroke; unclog central venous caths; prototype: alteplase, recombinant

alteplase recombinant

thrombolytic drug; given IV; converts plasminogen to plasmin; NO active internal bleeding; adv: internal or superficial bleeding; reconstitute in sterile water; monitor vital signs for signs of bleeding; cardiac monitor

Clotting factors

deficiencies of normal clotting factors are associated with prolonged bleeding and clot formation, so these replace them; prototype: antihemophilic factor

antihemophilic factor

clotting factor VIII; treats bleeding in hemophilia; slight risk of hepatitis and HIV since made from human factors; reconstitute and administer IV; NO hypersensitivity to mouse protein; adv: anaphylaxis, urticaria, nausea, chills; refrigerate then warm to room temp; don't use aspirin or ibuprofen

hemostatic drugs

stop blood loss by enhancing coagulation; can be systemic (breakdown of clots) or topical (control small bleeding or oozing following surgery); prototype: aminocaproic acid

aminocaproic acid

systemic hemostatic drug; treats life threatening hemorrhage; IV; adv: GI DISTRESS, headache, dizzy, seizure, hypo, tinnitus, nasal congestion, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea, diuresis, thrombophlebitis; place on cardiac monitor; inxs: oral contraceptives

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set