are a Tungusic people who origin ated in Manchuria (today's northeastern China). During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels (such as general Wu Sangui), they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty
was an Irish-born British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat. He is often remembered for his observation following Britain's success in the Seven Years War
was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China.
Canton System of Trade
served as a means for China to control trade with the west within its own country
new system of trade that was set up after the Canton System of trade falls apart
Chinese fishing boats used to transport goods
divided into the First Opium War from 1839 to 1842 and the Second Opium War from 1856 to 1860, were the climax of disputes over trade and diplomatic relations between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire
is a term used in specific reference to a number of treaties imposed by Western powers, during the 19th and early 20th centuries
Most Favored Nation
a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade. The term means the country which is the recipient of this treatment must, nominally, receive equal trade advantages by the country granting such treatment
the name given to the port cities in China, Japan, and Korea that were opened to foreign trade by the Unequal Treaties
is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations.
was a widespread civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, against the ruling Qing Dynasty. About 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history
was a Hakka Chinese who led the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty, establishing the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom over varying portions of southern China, with himself as the "Heavenly King" and self-proclaimed brother of Jesus Christ.
Spheres of Influence
is an area or region over which a state or organization has significant cultural, economic, military or political influence.
policy allowing foreign nations into China for trade
was an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln
conflict between Japan and China that marked the emergence of Japan as a major world power and demonstrated the weakness of the Chinese empire. The war grew out of conflict between the two countries for supremacy in Korea.
he was the ninth emperor of the Ch'ing dynasty
as a powerful and charismatic figure who became the de facto ruler of the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years from 1861 to her death in 1908.
was a pro-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" in China between 1898 and 1901, opposing Western imperialism and Christianity.
Dr. Sun Yat-sen
was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the Founding Father of Republican China
was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He was an influential member of the Nationalist Party, the Kuomintang, and was a close ally of Sun Yat-sen
is an important episode of Chinese modern history, taking place in the city of Xi'an during the Chinese Civil War between the ruling Guomindang (GMD) and the rebel Chinese Communist Party and just before the Second Sino-Japanese War. On 12 December 1936, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of the GMD was suddenly arrested and kidnapped by Marshal Zhang Xueliang, a former warlord of Manchuria, then Japan-occupied Manchukuo. The incident led the Nationalists and the Communists to make peace so that the two could form a united front against the increasing threat posed by Japan.
was a massive military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang
Three People's Principle
is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation
An Act to make further provision with respect to the application of the China Indemnity Fund and of moneys paid on account of the China Indemnity.
Kuomingtang national people's party
is a political party of the Republic of China (Taiwan) whose guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People
General Yun Shih-k'ai
was an important Chinese general and politician famous for his influence during the late Qing Dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor of China,
the last emperor of China, named emperor at the age of 3
Chinese National People's Party formed in 1912 after the overthrow of the Manchu Empire, and led by Sun Zhong Shan
May 4th Movement
was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student demonstrations in Beijing on May 4, 1919, protesting the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially the Shandong Problem
was a Chinese revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, poet, political theorist, and leader of the Chinese Revolution. He was the architect of the People's Republic of China