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Evaluate the following statement: Oxygen is not a greenhouse gas; therefore, gases containing oxygen, such as ozone, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide, are not greenhouse gases either.
1)True. It is impossible for a gas containing oxygen to be a greenhouse gas.
2)True. Because oxygen is not a greenhouse gas, it is unlikely to combine with anything at a higher level of organization to form a greenhouse gas.
3)False. Compounds can have emergent properties that are very different from the elements that form them.
4)True. Compounds display emergent properties that are very similar to the elements that form them.
5)False. Oxygen is a special case because of its reactivity and electronegativity.

3

There are _____ naturally occurring elements.
1) 4
2) 25
3) 92
4) 108
5) 238

3

Which of the following is a trace element?

1) hydrogen
2) copper
3) oxygen
4) nitrogen
5) carbon

2

What are the four most abundant elements found in living systems?
1) Hydrogen, oxygen, calcium, and nitrogen
2) Nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, and oxygen
3) Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide
4) Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon
5) Magnesium, calcium, iron, and zinc

4

Which one of the following has negligible mass?
1) proton
2) neutron
3) electron
4) atom
5) element

3

Which one of the following subatomic particles has appreciable mass and lacks a charge?
1) proton
2) neutron
3) electron
4) element
5) molecule

2

The number of protons in an uncharged atom _____.
1) equals the number of electrons
2) equals the number of neutrons
3) varies with the different isotopes
4) equals the number of electrons in the outer orbital of the atom
5) determines its mass number

1

Consider a hypothetical atom with an atomic number of 4 and a net electronic charge of +1. How many neutrons does this atom have?
1) 1
2) 3
3) 4
4) The answer cannot be determined from the information provided.
5) none of the above

4

An element has 8 protons, 9 neutrons, and 8 electrons. Its atomic number and atomic mass, respectively, are _____.
1) 8 and 16
2) 8 and 17
3) 9 and 16
4) 9 and 17
5) 16 and 8

2

An uncharged atom of nitrogen (atomic number = 7) has _____.
1) 7 neutrons
2) 7 protons and 7 neutrons
3) 7 neutrons and 7 electrons
4) 7 protons and 7 electrons
5) 7 valence electrons

4

Isotopes of an element will always differ in _____.
1) atomic number
2) atomic mass
3) number of electrons
4) number of protons
5) none of the above

2

A particular carbon isotope has an atomic number of 6 and an atomic mass of 14. The respective number of neutrons, protons, and electrons that this carbon isotope has is _____.
1) 6, 8, and 6
2) 6, 6, and 8
3) 8, 6, and 6
4) 8, 6, and 8
5) 8, 6, and 4

3

Phosphorus-32 (radioactive) has _____ than phosphorus-35 (normal).
1) 3 more neutrons
2) 3 more protons
3) 3 fewer neutrons
4) 3 fewer protons
5) three more atoms

3

The most common form of calcium has 20 protons, 20 neutrons, and 20 electrons. Which of the following elements would be an isotope of calcium?
1) an atom with 21 protons, 20 neutrons, and 21 electrons
2) an atom with 20 protons, 20 neutrons, and 18 electrons
3) an atom with 20 protons, 21 neutrons, and 20 electrons
4) an atom with 21 protons, 21 neutrons, and 21 electrons
5) all of the above

3

Radioactive isotopes are useful in scientific research because _______.
1) They are not readily incorporated into biological reactions.
2) They are difficult to detect in small amounts, but living cells cannot distinguish them from the corresponding stable isotopes.
3) They can be used as tracers to follow particular atoms and molecules through metabolic pathways.
4) They decay spontaneously and give off energy and sub-atomic particles.
5) all of the above

3

Potassium (atomic number 19, mass number 40) and sodium (atomic number 11, mass number 23) have similar chemical properties and reactive behavior. This is because uncharged atoms of potassium and sodium _____.
1) have different atomic numbers but the same number of electrons
2) have different atomic numbers and different numbers of electrons in their outermost electron shells
3) have the same atomic number and each has 1 electron in its outermost electron shell
4) have different mass numbers and each has 1 electron in its outermost electron shell
5) have different atomic numbers, different mass numbers, and different numbers of electrons in their outermost electron shells

4

Atomic chlorine has an atomic number of 17. It has _____ electrons in its third shell.
1) 2
2) 7
3) 8
4) 10
5) 17

2

The chemical characteristics or reactivity of an element depend mostly on the _____.
1) number of electrons in its outermost shell
2) number of electron shells present in the atoms
3) mean energy level of its electrons
4) degree to which it has more or fewer electrons than protons
5) number of protons plus the number of neutrons

1

Some groups of elements react chemically in similar ways. For example, the chemistry of sodium and the chemistry of lithium are similar. The chemistry of chlorine and the chemistry of iodine are also similar. These similarities in chemistry result when different elements have similar _____.
1) atomic size
2) numbers of outer-shell electrons
3) total numbers of electrons
4) energy quanta per electron
5) atomic number

2

How many electrons would be present in the valence shell of a sulfur atom (atomic number 16, mass number 32)?
1) 1 electron
2) 2 electrons
3) 4 electrons
4) 6 electrons
5) 8 electrons

4

For most atoms, a stable configuration of electrons is attained when the atom _____.
1) has as many protons as neutrons
2) has moved all its electrons to its outermost shell
3) achieves a zero net charge
4) has 8 electrons in its outermost shell
5) none of the above

4

An atom that normally has _____ in its outer shell would not tend to form chemical bonds with other atoms.
1) 1 electron
2) 3 electrons
3) 4 electrons
4) 6 electrons
5) 8 electrons

5

When one or more pairs of valence electrons are shared by two atoms, what type of bond is formed?
1) An ionic bond.
2) A covalent bond.
3) A hydrogen bond.
4) An electronegative bond.
5) A neutral bond.

2

A polar covalent bond is a bond that _____.
1) is found only in H2O
2) is found only in molecules containing oxygen
3) shares electrons equally between atoms
4) ionizes
5) has shared electrons pulled closer to the more electronegative atom

5

A covalent bond is likely to be polar if _____.
1) the two atoms sharing electrons are equally electronegative
2) one of the atoms sharing electrons is much more electronegative
3) it is between two atoms that are both very strong electron acceptors
4) the two atoms sharing electrons are of the same element
5) it is between two atoms that are both very strong electron donors

2

When the proton number and electron number are unequal, the atom or molecule _____.
1) forms a covalent bond with another atom
2) is an ion
3) becomes part of a molecule
4) gains or loses a proton
5) gains or loses a neutron

2

A sodium atom has a mass number of 23. Its atomic number is 11. How many electrons does it have if it is not an ion?
1) 11
2) 12
3) 22
4) 23
5) 34

1

Copper has an atomic number of 29 and a mass number of 64. What would result if an uncharged copper atom lost two electrons?
1) The atom would have a double negative charge and be an ion.
2) The atomic number of the atom would remain 29, the mass number would be reduced to 62, and the atom would be an anion.
3) The atomic number would remain 29, the mass number would increase to 66, and the atom would be a cation with a -2 charge.
4) The atomic number would be reduced to 27, the mass number would remain 64, and the atom would be an anion with a +2 charge.
5) The atomic number would remain 29, the mass number would remain 64, and the atom would be a cation with a +2 charge.

5

The compound CaSO4 ionizes into a calcium ion and a sulfate ion (SO4). Calcium has 2 electrons in its outer shell. Upon ionization, what would you expect the charge on the sulfate ion to be?
1) -4
2) +2
3) +1
4) -1
5) -2

5

Ionic bonds form as a result of _____.
1) attraction between ions that have opposite charges
2) attraction between hydrogen and other atoms that share electrons unequally
3) sharing of electron pairs between atoms
4) unequal sharing of electrons between atoms
5) the asymmetric distribution of electrons in constant motion

1

A hydrogen bond _____.
1) is one in which two hydrogen atoms bond to each other
2) is one in which hydrogen is strongly attracted to a positively charged atom
3) is a function of hydrophobic interactions
4) is a weak chemical bond
5) is a strong chemical bond

4

Hydrogen bonds occur when _____.
1) a molecule with partial charges contacts a molecule without partial charges
2) a molecule with a low molecular weight is bonded to a molecule with a high molecular weight
3) two atoms achieve stable electron configurations by sharing electrons with each other
4) partial opposite charges on molecules come close enough to attract each other
5) none of the above

4

What is the role of Van der Waals interactions in biological molecules?
1) Although they are weak bonds, Van der Waals interactions help to reinforce the 3-dimensional shapes of large molecules.
2) Van der Waals interactions are too weak to be significant.
3) Van der Waals interactions are strong bonds that play a major structural role in holding proteins together.
4) Van der Waals interactions are only important in water.
5) Although they are weak bonds, Van der Waals interactions involve the sharing of electrons.

1

Which of the following molecules has the shape of a completed tetrahedron?
1) water (H2O)
2) hydrogen gas (H2)
3) oxygen gas (O2)
4) methane (CH4)
5) glucose (C6H12O6)

4

Pharmaceutical researchers are often interested in blocking particular receptor proteins on cell surfaces. What chemical property of a molecule would be most important for this type of application?
1) The atomic numbers of the atoms involved.
2) The molecule's shape.
3) The number of valence electrons.
4) The type of bonding in the molecule.
5) The number of double bonds in the molecule.

2

Which of the following statements is true about chemical reactions?
1) They represent the way matter is created and destroyed.
2) They reach chemical equilibrium when there is the same amount of products and reactants.
3) They may have different numbers of a given atom on each side of the equation arrow.
4) They involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds.
5) Only inorganic molecules can participate in chemical reactions.

4

Which of the following statements describes a reversible reaction that has reached chemical equilibrium?
1) The rate of the reverse reaction exceeds the rate of the forward reaction.
2) The rate of the reverse reaction equals the rate of the forward reaction.
3) The rate of the forward reaction exceeds the rate of the reverse reaction.
4) The forward and the reverse reactions have stopped.
5) The concentration of the reactants is equal to the concentration of the products.

2

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