a member of a people native to Manchuria who ruled China during the Qing dynasty
war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese treaty to the British- the opening of 5 chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges
refers to China because the people believed that their land stood between heaven and earth.
Ruled 1711-1799 1) Ordered construction of the Summer Palace (built 1750)
Led an expedition from Great Britain to China in 1793
Canton System of Trade
Restricted trade to being conducted through a handful of selected merchants called Cohong merchants. Only allowed to trade in the harbor in Canton (Guangzhou). Put in place in 17th century. Macartney Mission wanted to end this system of trade. GB became dependant on tea that it was forced to grow opium in India and trade the opium with China. Led to Opium Wars.
Linton System of Trade
another system of trade
Treaty of Nanking
A treaty with Britain and China that gave Hong Kong to Britain and opened 4 cities for trade
Treaty of the Bogue
agreement between China and UK due to Treaty of Nanking. gave extraterritoriality and most favored nation status to UK
Treaty of Tienstin
1860 legalized Opium trade, open ports to foreign trade
East India Company
British joint-stock company that grew to be a state within a state in India; it possessed its own armed forces.
a region in northeastern China
The two hundred year old Chinese dynast that was the last emperors of China
Commissioner Lin Tse-Hsu
appointed by the emperor to stop the opium issue- rounded up addicts and forcibly treated them and as harshly punished drug dealers. However, his last proposal to end the trade wasn't so successful..tried to force merchants into signing agreements saying they wouldn't participate in opium trade and would be punished by law if they did- began Opium war
Unequal Treaty System
The treaties that the english forced onto the chinese were the first of many. Western powers took advantage of winning the war, forcing china to sign unfavourable treaties.
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.
Leader of the Taiping rebellion. Thought himself the younger brother of Jesus.
Right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation.
a country that will be charged as low a tarriff on its exports as any other country
A late nineteenth century movement in which the Chinese modernized their army and encouraged Western investment in factories and railways
spheres of influence
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported antiforeign movements, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces. (p. 721)
This leader tried to reform China and was quickly deposed in favor of conservative leadership.
100 Days Reform
Emperor Guangxu takes control for a little over 100 days and made a lot of reforms, worked with Liang Qichao, Epress dowager Cixi took him out of power before any good could come of the reforms
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canal
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
The first great revolutionary leader in 20th century China who founded the ALliance League in 1905. The League aimed to overthrow the Qing to make china a republic, get rid of foreign powers and distribute land to peasants. He created the three principles of the people, Nationalism, Socialism and Democracy. After the Revolution, he returned from overseas to lead china, however failed to leaed successfully. He handed power to Yuan Shikai.
Three People's Principles
political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation
Provisional leader 1912-1916 is when he dies and was a traditionalist and military officer
Nationalist leader, southwestern China, army of 2.5 million men, US sent army 1.5 billion in aid, few battles vs. Japanese.
The leader of the new Communist state. This was a result of the civil war in china
With the death of Empress Dowager Ci Xi, Henry Pu Yi (an infant) became the "last emperor". Followers of Sun Yat-sen launched a revolt. Too weak to form a new government they turned to General Yaun Shigai, who controlled the army. He would serve as president of the new Chinese republic
May Fourth Movement 1919
1. Protest against unequal treaty, turns into a cultural reformation
2. results in the introduction of Western novels
3. Free love
4. organized by college students from Beijing
5. Anti-Japanese sentiment
Political party in China from 1911 to 1949; enemy of the Communists. Often abbreviated at KMT.
The 6,000-mile flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek.
Chinese Communist Revolution