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communication

the process of transferring meanings from sender to receiver.

context

information that surrounds a communication and helps to convey the message.

downward communication

the transmission of information from superior to subordinate.

upward communication

the transfer of meaning from subordinate to superior.

perception

a person's view of reality.

nonverbal communication

the transfer of meaning through means such as body language and the use of physical space.

kinesics

the study of communication through body movement and facial expression.

oculesics

the area of communication that deals with conveying messages through the use of eye contact and gaze.

haptics

communicating through the use of bodily contact.

proxemics

the study of the way people use physical space to convey messages.

intimate distance

distance between people that is used for very confidential communications.

personal distance

In communicating, the physical distance used for talking with family and close friends.

social distance

In communicating, the distance used to handle most business transactions.

public distance

In communicating, the distance used when calling across the room or giving a talk to a group.

chronemics

the way in which time is used in a culture.

monochronic time schedule

a time schedule in which things are done in a linear fashion.

polychronic time schedule

a time schedule in which people tend to do several things at the same time and place higher value on personal involvement than on getting things done on time.

chromatics

the use of color to communicate messages.

negotiation

bargaining with one or more parties for the purpose of arriving at a solution acceptable to all.

distributive negotiations

bargaining that occurs when two parties with opposing goals compete over a set value.

integrative negotiation

bargaining that involves cooperation between two groups to integrate interests, create value, and invest in the agreement.

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