Psychology Exam 2

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Psycology chpt 3 & 4- Learning and Human Nature & Memory

If you salivate to the smell of a hamburger and fries, learning theory would suggest that you have formed an association based on?

classical conditioning.

________ refers to a procedure in classical conditioning where a CR no longer occurs in the presence of the CS due to the absence of the UCS.

Extinction

A(n) ________ refers to the behavior elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.

unconditioned response

Jane's dog will listen to her commands but ignores her sister's commands. Jane's dog would be demonstrating

stimulus discrimination.

To avoid conditioned taste aversions, cancer patients are now given ________ during chemotherapy

unusually flavored candies or ice cream

________ are consequences that alter the likelihood of behaviors.

Rewards and punishments

________ refers to the process of experience producing an enduring change in behavior.

Learning

Thorndike's idea that responses that brought about positive outcomes would likely be repeated is called

the law of effect.

Positive reinforcers ________ the likelihood of ensuing responses.

increase

Jenna walks into her science class laboratory, and she immediately feels queasy. Today is the day her class is dissecting frogs and she is sickened by the smell of the formaldehyde. However, after an hour Jenna is no longer sickened because of

habituation.

As a marine biologist, you are trying to teach a dolphin to jump over a bar. At first, you reward the dolphin every time it swims near the bar. Then, you only reward her when she emerges from the water near the bar. Eventually, you reward the dolphin each time she jumps out of the water. Then, you only reward the dolphin when she jumps over the bar. This technique is an example of

shaping.

A television producer who receives a monthly check is working according to a ________ schedule of reinforcement.

fixed interval

Your text suggests that fishing is a good example of a ________ reinforcement schedule.

variable interval

Using the Premack principle, once you have finished studying for your next biology test you should

do something you enjoy.

A punisher is an aversive consequence that

weakens the behavior it follows.

Punishment must be administered ________ in order to be effective.

immediately and consistently

The most effective form of punishment usually involves

penalties, such as loss of privileges.

Wolfgang Kohler suggested that chimps

are capable of insight learning.

________ reported that watching violent behaviors makes children more likely to behave violently?

Bandura

________ refers to the condition in which media violence reduces emotional arousal while watching violence.

Psychic numbing

Another term for eidetic imagery is

photographic memory.

When you hear a phone number and are able to recall it for a brief period, the phone number is thought to reside within ________ memory.

working

________ refers to the term for any system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information.

Memory

The stream of information from your foot is first passed through ________ memory.

sensory

The capacity of working memory is about ________ items.

7

Two strategies that are useful in dealing with the limits of working memory are to

chunk and rehearse.

Bobs sells lamps for a living. In order to help people remember his telephone number, he requests the number 981-5267. Bob advertises his number as 981-LAMP. Bob is hoping that ________ will aid his customers in remembering his phone number.

elaborative rehearsal

Long-term memory is thought to have

an unlimited capacity.

________ memory is the LTM subsystem that stores memory for how things are done.

Procedural

________ most clearly resembles an encyclopedia in terms of its content.

Semantic memory

________ refers to the inability to form new memories.

Anterograde amnesia

Your ability to remember where you were the morning of September 11, 2001, is an example of a(n)

flashbulb memory.

________ memory is an unconscious form of memory that can alter behavior.

Implicit

The TOT phenomenon occurs when

you know a word but cannot name it.

Material that is ________ is more susceptible to interference in memory.

low in meaningfulness

________ occurs when newly learned information prevents the retrieval of previously stored, similar information.

Retroactive interference

Absent-mindedness in a college student would typically involve

trying to study while watching television.

The memory process of ________ involves the retention of information over time.

storage

________ refers to a situation in which memories are colored by our beliefs and previous experiences.

Bias

Mnemonics are methods for

encoding information by associating it with information already in LTM.

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