5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Describe the lateral chain ganglia?
- In regards to the SNS, where do preganglionic B fibers originate?
- In regards to the SNS, once the preganglionic B fibers exit the spinal cord with the ventral ramus they synapse. Where do they synapse?
- What are the target organs of the middle cervical ganglions (C5-C6) & the stellate ganglions?
- What forms the stellate ganglion?
- a Synapse in the lateral chain ganglia along the ventrolateral surface of the vertebral bodies or pass thru to synapse in other (collateral) sympathetic ganglia.
- b Inferior cervical ganglion fuses w/ T1.
- c Paravertebral ganglia T1-L2 on the anterolateral surface of the vertebral bodies.
- d Heart
All preganglionic fibers arise below the stellate, blockade at this level affects all sympathetics above this level.
- e In the intermediolateral cell column segments T1-L2 or L3
5 Multiple choice questions
- Ketamine, dextromethorphan, methadone, PCP
Useful in chronic pain syndrome
- Celiac plexus
- Postgagnlionic neurons (unmyelinated C fibers).
- T1 or below
- With the ventral ramus.
5 True/False questions
What does the sensitization of peripheral (C-fibers) & central (dorsal horn laminae 1& 2) involve? → ↑ spontaneous neuronal activity d/t ectopic pacemakers (probably dysfunctional Na channels)
↑ response to stimuli
↓ stimulus threshold (less stimulation required to cause nerves to fire).
Describe the cardiac plexus → Superficial & deep divisions.
Both organized around the aortic arch.
What do the collateral ganglia accommodate? → Cardiac, celiac, superior % inferior mesenteric ganglia.
Describe the dorsal horn changes that occur w/ sympathetically mediated pain. → There is a sensitization of peripheral (C-fibers) & central (dorsal horn laminae 1& 2).
What is "cross talk"? → Abnormal connections by demyelinated (loss of myelin d/t some sort of neurologic phenomenon) neurons called ephapses.