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Snow College

How many bones make up the vertebral column?

26

How many true (moveable) vertebrae are there?

24

How many total vertebrae are there?

33

List the 5 functions (of spine and ribs) as given by McKinley and O'Loughlin

vertical support for body,
support head,
maintain upright position,
helping to transfer axial skeletal weight to lower limbs,
Housing and protection of spinal cord and nerves

How many regions are there in the vertebral column?

5

From superior to inferior list the 5 regions and note how many vertebrae are in each

7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 fused sacrum, 4 fused coccyx

From superior to inferior list the 4 curvatures of the spine as seen in a lateral view.

Cervical
Thoracic
Lumbar
Sacral

What curves develop in the womb? Give the collective and individual names

Primary curves- Thoracic & Sacral Curves

What curves develop after birth? Give the collective and individual names

Secondary curves- Cervical & Lumbar Curves
(Help child walk upright)

What is the anterior, cylindrical weight-bearing portion of a vertebra?

Body or centrum (plural- centra)
(weight baring portion)

What 2 lateral structures of a vertebra form the pillars of the passageway for the spinal cord?

Pedicles

On a vertebra what structures extend from the lateral pillars to the midline?

Laminae

Together the posteriorly projecting pillars and the extensions to the midline form what structure?

Vertebral Arch

Together the posteriorly projecting pillars and extentions to the midline form what passageway within vertebra?

Vertebral Foramen

The vertebrae form what collective passageway for the spinal cord?

Vertebral Canal

Adjacent vertebrae form what passageway for the spinal nerves?

Intervertebral Foramina
(each individual is an intervertebral foramen)

What posteriorly projecting structures of the vertebrae can be palpated?

Spinous Processes

What lateral projections occur on each vertebra?

Inferior Articular Processes

What processes of a vertebra form synovial joints with the vertebrae immediately superior and inferior it?

Superior & Inferior Articular Processes

What smooth, flat (or nearly flat) articular surfaces occur on a vertebra?

Articular Facets

What are the pads of fibrocartilage between vertebrae?

Intervetebral disc

What is the outer ring of fibrocartilage within an intervetebral disc?

Annulus fibrosus

What is the inner circular region of an intervertebral disc?

Nucleus pulposus

What is the relative size of the cervical vertebrae?

Smaller than the rest.

What is the shape of the spinous process of C1-C6?

Bifid

What openings in the cervical vertebrae allow the passage of the vertebral arteries and veins?

Transverse foramina
(Allows passage of vertebral artery)

What is another anatomical term for C1?

Atlas
(First cervical vertebrae)

What structures does C1 lack?

Lacks body and spinous processes

What is another anatomical term for C2? What structures does C2 lack?

Axis

During the development the body of C1 fuses to C2 to form what structure?

Dens or Odontoid Process

What is another anatomical term for the spinous process of C7?

Vertebra prominens
(Can palpate)

What is the general shape of the bodies of T1-T12?

Heart shaped body, large

What is a distinguishing characteristic of many of the thoracic vertebrae?

They articulate with the ribs
They have costal facets for rib articulations

Thoracic vertebrae can be distinguished from all other vertebrae by what features?

Costal facets, costal demifacets

What direction are the articular surfaces of the thoracic vertebrae oriented? How does this affect their movement?

The superior surface is oriented posteriorly.
The inferior surface is oriented anteriorly
-Movement = Along coronal plane

What is the general shape of the bodies of lumbar vertebrae?

Large, round, oval
(Bare Weight)

What is characteristic of the spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae?

They are thick and project dorsally (towards the back)

What direction are the articular surfaces of the lumbar vertebrae oriented? How does this affect their movement?

Medially and laterally
(Lets us flex in saggital plane)

What is the anatomical term for the anterior, superior bulge of the sacrum?

Promontory
(Bears a lot of weight)

What paired openings occur on the anterior surface of the sacrum?

Anterior sacral foramina
(In Pairs)

The spinous processes of the sacrum form what structure?

Median sacral crest

What are the paired openings on the posterior side of the sacrum?

Posterior sacral foramina

What lateral structures of the sacrum articulate with the ossa coxae?

Auricular surface
(Sacroiliac joint)

What is the anatomical term for the tailbone?

Coccyx

What structures make up the thoracic cage?

Thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum

What is the anatomical term for the breastbone?

Sternum

What are the 3 main parts of the sternum?

Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid process

What are the depressions on the sternum for the articulation of the clavicles?

Clavicular notches

What is the shallow, superior depression on the sternum?

Suprasternal notch

What depressions on the sternum do the ribs articulate with?

Costal notches

What palpable feature lies at the articulation of the manubrium and the body of the sternum?

Sternal angle

How many ribs are there?

12 pairs of ribs

What ribs have their costal cartilages directly articulated with the sternum? What are their numbers?

1-7, true ribs
(articulates directly with sternum)

What ribs do not have their costal cartilages directly articulated with the sternum? What are their numbers?

8-12, false ribs

What type of rib has no connection with the sternum? What are their numbers?

11-12, floating ribs
(no connection at all to sternum - also false ribs)

What part of a rib articulates with the body (bodies) of a vertebra(e)?

Head (capitulum)

What part of a rib articulates with the transverse process of a vertebrae?

Tubercle

What part of a rib lies between the head and tubercle?

Neck

Ribs project posterolaterally from the vertebral column. What is the region of a rib where it changes direction and begins curving toward the sternum?

Angle of the rib

What is the main part of a rib?

Shaft of the rib

What feature on the inferior side of a rib marks the path of an artery, a vein, and a nerve?

Costal Groove
(Blood vessels and nerves travel here)

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