WWII

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Totalitarianism

a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)

Hitler

leader of Nazi's, organize his supporters into fighting squads, had an obsession with extreme nationalism, racism and antisemitism, promised to end reparations, create jobs and defy the Versailles treaty

Fascism

A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.

Black shirts

a private army under Mussolini who destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of Northern Italy.

Spanish Civil War

civil war in Spain in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government

General Franco

Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death (following the victory of the Spanish Civil War)

Reichstag

Seated Germany's lower house of Parlimrent, it burned in 1933 and Hitler blamed it on the communist, this event led to Hitler becoming the absolute dictator in Germany.

Himmler

German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews (1900-1945)

Mein Kampf

Book writen by Hitler where he outlines his beliefs: Germans are a superior race, The Treaty of Versailles treated Germany unfairly and that a crowed Germany needed the lands of Eastern Europe and Russia

lebensraum

(German for "habitat" or literally "living space") served as a major motivation for Nazi Germany's territorial aggression. In his book Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum (for a Grossdeutschland, land, and raw materials), and that it should be taken in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, Germanize or enslave the Polish, and later also Russian and other Slavic populations, and to repopulate the land with reinrassig Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class.

SS

special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925

Nazi

National Socialist German Workers' Party a member of the National Socialist German Workers' party which in 1933, under Adolf Hitler, seized political control of the country, suppressing all opposition and establishing a dictatorship over all cultural, economic and political activities of the German people

National Socialist German Workers Party

(Nazi Party) was a far-right, racist political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945.

Hitler Youth

Nazi Party's compulsory youth movement, which emphasized physical training, Nazi ideology, and absolute obedience to Hitler and the Nazi party. Youth were subject to intensive propaganda regarding racial and national superiority.

Molotov Ribbentrop Nonaggression Pact

a non-aggression pact under which the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany each pledged to remain neutral in the event that either nation were attacked by a third party. It remained in effect until 22 June 1941, when Germany invaded the Soviet Union.

Operation Barabarossa

the code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that began on 22 June 1941.

Isolationism

abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations; American foreign policy

appeasement

practice of giving in to an aggressor nation's demands in order to keep peace

Munich Conference

1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.

Third Reich

The Third Republic of Germany which began Hitler's rule in 1933 and ended with his defeat in 1945

Erwin Rommel

"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.

Axis powers

in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.

Allied powers

France, Britain, USSR, United States, and China as well as 45 other countries that opposed the Axis powers in World War II

Isoroku Yamamoto

Japanese admiral who planned the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 (1884-1943)

Atlantic Charter

1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war

Enabling Act

enabled Hitler to get rid of the Reichstag parliament and pass laws without reference to parliament

Big Lie

"The expression was coined by Adolf Hitler in his 1925 autobiography Mein Kampf for a lie so ""colossal"" that no one would believe that someone ""could have the impudence to distort the truth so infamously""."

D-Day

June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president

El Alamein

Town in Egypt, site of the victory by Britain's Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery over German forces led by General Erwin Rommel (the 'Desert Fox') in 1942-1943. (p. 793)

Battle of Britain

an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.

Battle of Stalingrad

a 1942-1943 battle of World War II, in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union thanks to harsh winter --> turning point of war in Eastern Europe

Battle of the Bulge

December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.

Battle of Iwo Jima

lasted 6 weeks, several thousand marines, and more than 20,000 Japanese soldiers were killed, this battle is also notable for the famous photograph of US marines lifting the American flag to a standpoint

Manhattan Project

code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II

kamikaze

Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.

Battle of Guadalcanal

a 1942-1943 battle of World War II, in which Allied troops drove Japanese forces from the Pacific island of Guadalcanal.

General MacArthur

He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WW2(He liberated the Phillipines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945, also he drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War)

Hiroshima

City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. (p. 797)

Nagasaki

Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).

Battle of Dunkirk

(1940) Germany invades France and squeezes around the Maginot line;
german troops trap British and French troops at Dunkirk;
British citizens cross the English Channel and rescue 400,000 soldiers trapped at Dunkirk using every available boat

Pearl Harbor

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.

Midway

World War II Pacific battle; decisive U.S. victory over powerful Japanese carrier force.

Coral Sea

Crucial naval battle which stopped the Japanese march across the Pacific, first time all fighting was done by carrier based aircraft

Rape of Nanking

In late 1937, Japan defeated the Chinese city of Nanking. Chinese civilians were brutalized and thousands were killed. The event shocked Western powers and contributed to sanctions against Japan.

Final Solution

the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler

Kristallnacht

(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.

Auschwitz-Birkenau

was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated in occupied Poland by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. It was the largest of the German concentration camps, consisting of Auschwitz I (the Stammlager or main camp); Auschwitz II-Birkenau (the Vernichtungslager or extermination camp); Auschwitz III-Monowitz, also known as Buna-Monowitz (a labor camp); and 45 satellite camps.[1]

Auschwitz is the German name for Oświęcim, the town the camps were located in and around; it was renamed by the Germans after they invaded Poland in September 1939. Birkenau, the German translation of Brzezinka (birch tree), refers to a small Polish village nearby that was mostly destroyed by the Germans to make way for the camp.

Auschwitz II-Birkenau was designated by Heinrich Himmler, Germany's Minister of the Interior, as the locus of the "final solution of the Jewish question in Europe." From spring 1942 until the fall of 1944, transport trains delivered Jews to the camp's gas chambers from all over Nazi-occupied Europe.[2] The camp's first commandant, Rudolf Höss, testified after the war at the Nuremberg Trials that up to three million people had died there (2.5 million exterminated, and 500,000 from disease and starvation),[3] a figure since revised to 1.1 million, around 90 percent of them Jews.[4] Others deported to Auschwitz included 150,000 Poles, 23,000 Roma and Sinti, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, and tens of thousands of people of diverse nationalities.[5] Those not killed in the gas chambers died of starvation, forced labor, lack of disease control, individual executions, and medical experiments.[6] Denis Avey, recently named a British Holocaust hero by the government of Britain, had escaped and spoke of conditions inside the camps.[7]

On January 27, 1945, Auschwitz was liberated by Soviet troops, a day commemorated around the world as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. In 1947, Poland founded a museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, which by 1994 had seen 22 million visitors—700,000 annually—pass through the iron gates crowned with the infamous motto, Arbeit macht frei ("work makes you free").

Island hopping

the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

A imperialistic system founded by Japan consisting of other Asian countries during the early 20th century. Japan reduced its members to puppet nations, taking their raw materials and using them as new markets.

General Hideki Tojo

General who took power to Japan and was the architect of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

Emperor Hirohito

emperor of Japan during WWII. his people viewed him as a god

Iron Curtain

refers to the secrecy and isolation of the Soviet Union and its satellite states, East Germany, Hungary, and Poland, after World War II. The phrase was first used by Winston Churchill while he was giving a speech in the United States.

Winston Churchill

A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.

F. D. Roosevelt

President who began the welfare state in the U.S. Beat Hoover in an electoral landslide in 1932. Roosevelt created a new economic policy of government intervention known as the New Deal (the New Deal created a variety of new agencies designed to bring "relief, recovery, and reform" and later a program of public works and the Social Security Act). The Roosevelt administration was responsible for the social legislation that moved away from laissez-faire and began the American welfare state.

Harry S. Truman

President of the US after Roosevelt's death; approved the use of the atomic bomb against Japan

Neville Chamberlain

Prime Minister of Great Britain from -1940. Famous for appeasing Hitler at the Munich Conference.

Yalta Conference

FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War

Potsdam Conference

The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.

Blitzgrieg

german for "lightning war", a lightening war a form of suprise attacks in which fast moving planes were followed by massive infantry

Vichy France

Southern Pro-Nazi French; govern themselves as loyal to nazis; traitors to the Free French in N. France

General Douglas MacArthur

He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WW2(He liberated the Phillipines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945, also he drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War)

Dwight D. Eisenhower

leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School

Charles DeGaulle

French General who Led the French resistance. Organized the Free French military forces that battled the Nazis until France was liberated in 1944.

Luftwaffe

the German airforce

Unconditional surrender

an announcement by FDR with Churchill's endorsement that the war would end only with this. The conquered governments would be no longer, no compromise could be reached. Later people believe that this stiffened enemy resistance

Holocaust

A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.

Nuremberg Trials

Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes

Cold War

A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.

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