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global warming

the process that occurs when carbon dioxide stays in the atmosphere and acts like a blanket that holds in the heat

social change

the alteration, modification, or transformation of public policy, culture, or social institutions over time

What is social change brought about by?

collective behavior and social movements

collective behavior

voluntary, often spontaneous activity in by a large number of people and typically violates dominant-group norms and values

What does collective behavior occur as a result of?

some common influence or stimulus that produces a response from a collectivity

collectivity

a number of people who act together and may mutually transcend, bypass, or subvert established institutional patterns and structures

What are the three major factors contributing to the likelihood that collective behavior will occur?

structural factors that increase the chances of people responding in a particular way; timing; a breakdown in social control mechanisms and a corresponding feeling of normlessness

crowd

relatively large number of people who are in one another's immediate vicinity

mass

a number of people who share an interest in a specific idea or issue but who are not in one another's immediate vicinity

dominant emotion

the publicly expressed feeling perceived by participants and observers as the most prominent in an episode of collective behavior

aggregates

a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but who share little else in common

Casual crowds

relatively large gatherings of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time

Conventional crowds

people who come together for a scheduled event and this share a common focus

Expressive crowds

crowds that provide opportunities for the expression of some strong emotion

Acting crowds

collectivities so intensely focused on a specific purpose or object that they may erupt into violent or destructive behavior

mob

a highly emotional crowd whose members engage in, or are ready to engage in, violence against a specific target

What are three types of acting crowds?

mobs, riots, panics

Riot

violent crowd behavior that is fueled by deep-seated emotions but not directed at one specific target

panic

a form of crowd behavior that occurs when a large number of people react to a real or perceived threat with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior

Civil disobedience

nonviolent action that seeks to change a policy or law by refusing to comply with it

Protest crowds

crowds that engage in activties intended to achieve specific political goals

Contagion theory

a theory that focuses on the social-psychological aspects of collective behavior; it attempts to explain how moods, attitudes, and behavior are communicated rapidly and why they are accepted by others

circular reaction

the interactive communication between persons such that the discontent of one person is communicated to another, who, in turn, reflects the discontent back to the first person

Convergence theory

a theory focused on the shared emotions, goals, and beliefs that many people may bring to crowd behavior

Emergent norm theory

theory that emphasizes the importance of social norms in shaping crowd behavior

When do emergent norms occur?

when people define a new situation as highly unusual or see a long-standing situation in a new light

Mass behavior

collective behavior that takes place when people (who often are geographically separated from one another) respond to the same event in much the same way

rumors

unsubstantiated reports on an issue or subject

gossip

rumors about the personal lives of individuals

Mass hysteria

a form of dispersed collective behavior that occurs when a large number of people react with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior to a real or perceived threat

fad

a temporary but widely copied activity enthusiastically followed by large numbers of people

fashion

a currently valued style of behavior, thinking, or appearance

public opinion

the attitudes and beliefs communicated by ordinary citizens to decision makers

propaganda

information provided by individuals or groups that have vested interest in furthering their own cause or damaging an opposing one

social movement

an organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action

reform movements

movements which seek to improve society by changing some specific aspect of the social structure

revolutionary movements

movements seeking to bring about a total change in society

religious movements

movements that seek to produce radical change in individuals, which are concerned with renovating or renewing people through inner change

millenarian

a characteristic of some religious movements that forecast the "end is near" and assert that an immediate change in behavior is imperative

alternative movements

movements that seek limited change in some aspect of people's behavior

resistance movements

movements that seek to prevent change or to undo change that has already occurred

What is another name for resistance movements

regressive movements

What happens in the preliminary (incipiency) stage of social movements?

widespread unrest is present as people begin to become aware of a problem in this social movement phase

What happens in the coalescence stage of social movements?

people begin to organize and to publicize the problem in this social movement phase

What happens in the institutionalization (bureaucratization) stage of social movements?

an organizational structure develops, and a paid staff begins to lead the group in this social movement phase

What are the three stages of social movements?

preliminary, coaslescence, institutionalization

What is the relative deprivation theory?

theory that people who are satisfied with their present condition are less likely to seek social change

relative deprivation

the discontent that people may feel when they compare their achievements with those of similarly situated persons and find that they have less than they think they deserve

unfulfilled rising expectations

newly raised hopes of a better lifestyle that are not fulfilled as rapidly as the people expected or are not realized at all

What are the six conditions necessary to produce a social movement when they combine or interact in a particular situation?

structural conduciveness; structural strain; spread of a generalized belief; precipitating factors; mobilization for action; social control factors

Resource mobilization theory

theory focusing on the ability of members of a social movement to acquire resources and mobilize people in order to advance their cause

framing

focusing attention in some bounded phenomenon by imparting meaning and significance to elements within the frame and setting them apart from what is outside the frame

Diagnostic framing

framing that identifies a problem and attributes blame or causality to some group or entity so that the social movement has a target for its actions

prognostic framing

framing that pinpoints possible solutions or remedies, based on the target previously identified

motivational framing

framing that provides a vocabulary of motives that compel people to take action

Frame alignment

the linking together of interpretive orientations of individuals and social movement organizations so that there is congruence between individuals' interests, beliefs, and values and the movement's ideologies, goals and activities

What are the four distinct frame alignment processes that occur in social movements?

frame bridging, frame amplification, frame extension, frame transformation

frame bridging

the process by which movement organizations reach individuals who already share the same world view as the organization

frame amplification

process that occurs when movements appeal to deeply held values and beliefs in the general population and link those to movement issues so that people's preexisting value commitments serve as a "hook" that can be used to recruit them

frame extension

process that occurs when movements enlarge the boundaries of an initial frame to incorporate other issues that appear to be of importance to potential participants

frame transformation

process whereby the creation and maintenance of new values, beliefs, and meanings induce movement participation by redefining activities and events in such a manner that people believe they must become involved in collective action

Political opportunity theory

theory that states that people will choose those options for collective action that are most readily available to them and those options that will produce the most favorable outcome for their cause

opportunity

options for collective action, with chances and risks attached to them that depend on factors outside the mobilizing group

Ecofeminism

theory based on the belief that patriarchy is a root cause of environmental problems

environmental racism

the belief that a disproportionate number of hazardous facilities are placed in low-income areas populated primarily by people of color

What are the key components of the value-added theory

a perceived problem, a perception that the authorities are not resolving the problem, a spread of the belief to an adequate number of people, a precipitating incident, mobilization of other people by leaders, a lack of social control

infrastructure

a framework of systems, such as transportation and utilities, that makes it possible to have specific land uses and a built environment that support people's daily activities and the nation's economy

What is the primary focus of research based on frame analysis?

the social construction of grievances through the process of social interaction

What is the primary focus of research based on political opportunity theory?

how social protests are directly related to the political opportunities that potential protesters and movement organizers believe exist within the political system at any given point in time

What is the primary focus of research based on new social movement theory?

factors of identity, such as race, class, gender and sexuality, as sources of collective action and social movements

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