first, longest, an most complicated stage of mitosis, stuff appears, disappears, moves
centriols are at pole, spimdle fibers stretch to poles.chromosomes are in line (equator)
centrioles are at poles, spindle fibers start to contract and break
full set of chromosomes at either pole, centrioles and fibers disappear
divison of of cytoskeleton an orgenelles
pinched by spindle fibers at he cleavage furrow
cant be pinched in 2, builds cell plate across middle made by golgi apperatous
plant cell construction
builds from inside out
cancer can appear if the spindle fiber dont break right
water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground
a tiny groove in soil made by flowing water
a large channel in soil formed by erosion
a channel through which water is continually flowing downhill
wide valley through which a river flows
a looplike bend in the course of a river
a meander cut off from a river
a landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake
the process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered rock and soil
earth materials deposited by erosion
process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
a wide, sloping deposit of sediment formed where a stream leaves a moutain range
the type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
the process that breaks down rock through chemical change
soil organism that breaks down the remains of organisms and digests them
the area of the Great Plains where wind erosion caused soil loss during the 1930s
the chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface
the grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind
the loose, weathered material on Earth's surface in which plants can grow
the management of soil to prevent its destruction
process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, the freezes and expands
dark-colored organic material in soil
a thick mass of grass roots and soil
soil conservation method in which the dead stalks from the previous year's crop are ledt in the ground to hold the soil in place
push or pull
an object to start moving stop moving or change direction
equal forrces acting on one object in opposite directions
the tendency of an object to resist change in its motion
the amount of matter in an object
equals the force required to accelerate one kilogram of mass at one meter per second per second
the force that one surface exerts on another when the two rub against each other.
when solid surfaces slide over each other
when an object rolls over a surface
the friction that occurs when an object moves through a fluid
when the only force acting on a falling object is gravity
the force that pulls objects toward earth
an object thats thrown horizontally
objects falling through air experience a type of fluid friction
the greatest velocity the object reaches
the force of gravity on a person or object at the surface of a planet
the overrall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on an object are added together.
law of conservation of momentum
the rule that the total momentum of objects in an interaction does not change
the product of an object's mass and velocity
any object that travels around another object in space
the energy of light and other forms of radiation
the rate at which work is done
kinetic or potential energy associated with the motion or position of an object
is the amount of work you do when you exert a force of 1 newton to move an object the distance of 1 meter
when you exert a force on an object that causes the object to move a distance
the ability to do work or cause change
equals the force required to accelerate 1kg of mass at 1m per second squared
is a push or pull
is the amount of matter in an object
the energy of moving electrical charges
the potential energy stored in the nucleus of an atom
the potential energy stored in chemical bonds
the change from one form of energy to another
energy that an object has due to its motion
the total energy of the particles in a object
gravitational potential energy
potential energy that depends on the light of an object
law of conservation of energy
states that when on e form of energy is converted to another, no energy id destroyed in the process
elastic potential energy
the energy of stretched of compressed objects
coal, petroleum, natural gas
energy that is stored and held in readiness
When two surfaces rub against each other.
When solid surfaces slide over each other.
When an object rolls over a surface.
When an object moves through a liquid or a gas.
When the only force acting on a falling object is gravity.
An object that is thrown.
An upward force.
When an object continues to fall and its velocity no longer increases.
The force of gravity on a person or object at the surface of a planet.
International system of units
a system of measurement based on multiples of ten and on established measures of mass, length, and time
changing a unit to another
the base unit for length
when the distance from anther object is changing relative to a reference point
a place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion
the distance traveled in one unit of time
Speed = Distance / Time
is speed in a given direction
The rate at which velocity changes
Increasing speed, Decreasing speed, changing direction
a metric unit of length equal to 1000 meters
a metric unit of length equal to 100 meters
a metric unit of length equal to ten meters
a metric unit of length equal to one tenth of a meter
a metric unit of length equal to one hundredth of a meter
a metric unit of length equal to one thousandth of a meter
A group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce fertile offspring.
The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species.
The time it takes for half of the atoms in a radioactive element to break down.
A technique used to determine which of the two fossils is older.
The theory that evolution occurs slowly but steadily.
Structures that have similar functions in two organisms that have not evolved from a common ancestor.
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce.
Any difference between individuals of the same species.
A type of fossil formed when a shell or other hard part of an organism dissolves, leaving an empty space in the shape of the part.
A technique used to determine the actual age of a fossil.
The theory that species evolve during short periods of rapid change.
The gradual change in a species over time.
The preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past.
A type of fossil that forms when a mold becomes filled in with minerals that then harden.
The millions of fossils that scientists have collected.
A diagram that shows how scientists think different groups of organisms are related.
A well-tasted concept that explains a wide range of observations.
Rock formed when layer of sediments harden over millions of years.
An unstable particle that breaks down into a different element.
A species that does not have any living members.
Body parts that are structurally similar in related species; provide evidence that the structures were inherited from a common ancestor.
when certain types of substances pass through the cell membrane more easily then others
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
movement of substances across the cell membrane with out the use of energy by the cell
transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient
what is: energy from sun light is used to split H2O molecules and combine its H atoms with CO2 and to make glucose (C6H12O6) and O2
plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances
an organism that cannot make its own food
the process of breaking down food to release its energy
process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
This structure controls all of hte activities going on within the cell. It si the "brain" of the cell.
This stucture si only found in plant cells. It gives the plant cells support and allows plants to grow tall.
This is the term given to all of the stuctures within a cell.
This is what all of the organelles float in.
This structure is found in both plant and animal cells. It allows materials to pass in and out of the cell.
This is the powerhouse of the cell. It supplies the cell with all of the energy it needs.
This structure is mainly only found in animal cells. It cleans up the cell by digesting old cell parts or digesting entire cells that are injured.
This structure carries proteins from one part to another
This stucture is sometimes attached to the ER, where proteins are made.
These structures are only found in plants. They contain chlorophyll
This structure stores food and water for the cell. It is found in both plant and animals cells, but is much larger in plant cells.
A membrane bound structure that is the basic unit of life
This says that all living things are made of cells, that cells are the basic unit of structure and function and that cells only come from other cells.
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
threadlike structures made of dna molecules that contain the genes
any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things
the life cycle of a cell
a change in a cell's genetic material. once the genetic material has changed, the change is inherited by the offspring of that cell
microscope that allows light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image (the micro scopes we use)
division of the cytoplasm during cell division
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics (genes)
ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
How large something is in a microscope
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
a class of nutients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. protien is made of amino acids.
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes (asexual)
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
finding a solution to a problem; clarity
a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
the study of heredity
physical characteristics of an organism
genetic makeup of an organism
having two identical alleles for a trait
having two different alleles for a trait
the offspring of many generations that have the same traits
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
offspring of a cross between parents with different traits; heterozygous
likelihood that a particular event will occur
a diagram that can determine the possible gene combinations
the chromosomal characteristics of a cell or the chromosomes themselves or a representation of them
alternative form of a gene
trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present
trait that will only appear in the phenotype if organism inherits two of them; covered up by the dominant gene
the process in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
three or more alleles of the same gene
a surgery that is used to determine if the offspring of an organism is alright
the process by which individuals that are better adapted to the environment will most likely survive and reproduce
any difference between individuals of the same species
a trait that helps an organism to survive and reproduce
is a group of similar organisms that they can mate with each other and produce fertile offspring
is the gradual change in a species over time
is a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
an organism's physical appearance
an organisms genetic makeup or allele combination
having two different alleles for a trait
having two identical alleles for a trait
a condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive
is the process by which the # of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells
a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
the like hood that a particular event will occur