Chapt. 31/Asepsis

71 terms by LRetterath 

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Acquired immunity (passive immunity)

a resistance of the body to infection in which the host receives natural or artificial antibodies produced by another source

Active immunity

a resistance of the body to infection in which the host produces its own antibodies in response to natural or artifical antigens

Acute infections

those that generally appear suddenly or last a short time

Airborne precautions

used for clients known to have or suspected of having serious illnesses transmittede by airborn droplet nuclei smaller than 5 microns

Antiboides

immunoglobulins, part of the body's plasma proteins, defend primarily against the extracellular phases of bacterial and viral infections

Antigen

a substance capable of inducing the formation of antibodies

Antiseptics

an agent that inhibits the growth of some microorganisms

Asepsis

freedom from infection or infectious material

Autoantigen

an antigen that originates in a person's own body

Bacteremia

bacteria in the blood

Bacteria

the most common infection-causing microorganisms

Bloodborne pathogens

potentially infectious organisms that are carried in and transmitted through blood or materials containing blood

Carrier

a person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent and serves as a potential source of infection, yet does not manifest any clinical signs of disease

Cell-mediated defenses (Cellular immunity)

occur through the T-cell system

Cellular immunity (Cell-mediated defenses)

occur through the T-cell system

Chronic infections

infection that occurs slowly, over a very long period, and may last months or years

Circulating immunity (Humoral immunity)

antibody-mediated defense; resides ultimately in the B lymphocytes and is mediated by the antibodies produces by the B cells

Clean

free of potentially infectious agents

Colonization

the presence of organisms in body secretions or excretions in which strains of bacteria become resident flora but do not cause illness

Communicable disease

a disease that can spread from one person to another

Compromised host

any person at increased risk for infection

Contact precautions

used for clients known or suspected to have a serious illnesse easily transmitted by direct client contact or by contact with items in the client's environment.

Cultures

laboratory cultivations of microorganisms in a special growth medium

Dirty

denotes the likely presence of microorganisms some of which may be capable of causing infection

Disease

an alteration in body function resulting in a reduction of capacities or shortening of the normal life span

Disinfectants

agent that destroys microoranisms other than spores

Droplet nuclei

residue of evaporated droplets emitted by an infected host, such as someone with ruberculosis, that can remain in the air for long periods of time

Droplet precautions

used for clients known or suspected to have serious illnesses transmitted by particle droplets larger than 5 microns (diptheria, microplasma, pneumonia)

Endogenous

developing from within

Exogenous

developing from outside sources

Exudate

perulent drainage

Fungi

infection-causing microorganisms that include yeasts and molds

Granulation tissue

young connective tissue with new capillaries

Health care-associated infection (HAI)

those infections that originate in any health care setting

Humoral immunity

antibody-mediated defense; resides ultimately in the B lymphocytes and is mediated by the antibodies produced by B cells

iatrogenic infections

infections that are the direct result of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures

Immune defenses (specific immune defenses)

immune functions directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses, fungi or other infectious agents

Immunity

a specific resistance of the body to infection; it may be natural, or resistance may develop after exposure to a disease agent

Immunoglobulins (Antibodies)

immunoglobulins, part of the body's plasma proteins, defend primarily against the extracellular phases of bacterial and viral infections

Infections

the disease process produced by microorganisms

Inflammation

local and nonspecific defensive tissue response to injury or destruction of cells

Isolation

practices that prevent the psread of infection and communicable disease

Leukocytes

an increase in the number of white blood cells

Leukocytosis

an increase in the number of white blood cells

Local infection

an infection that is limited to the specific part of the body where the microorganisms remain

Medical asepsis

all practices intended to confine a specific microorganism to a specific area, limiting the number, growth and spread of microorganisms

Nonspecific defenses

bodily defenses that protect a person against all microorganisms, regardless of prior exposure

Nosocomial infections

infections that originate in a hospital

Occupational exposure

skin, eye mucus membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties

Opportunistic pathogen

a microorganism causing disease only in a susceptible individual

Parasites

microorganisms that live in or on another from which it obtains nourishment

Passive immunity

a resistance of the body to infection in which the host receives natural or artifical antibodies produced by another source

Pathogenicity

the ability to produce disease; a pathogen is a microorganism that causes disease

Regeneration

renewal, regrowth, the replacement of destroyed tissue by cells that are identical or similar in structure and function

Reservoirs

a source of microorganisms

Resident flora

microorganisms that normally reside on the skin and mucous membranes, and inside the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts

Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette

covering the mouth and nose when sneezing or coughing, proper disposal of tissues and separating potentially infected persons from othe4rs bya least 1 m (3 ft.) or having them wear a surgical mask

Sepsis

the presence of pathogenic organisms or their toxins in the blood or body tissues

Septicemia

occurs when bacteremia results in systemic infection

Specific defenses

immune functions directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other infectious agents

Standard precautions (SP)

the risk of caregiver exposure to client body tissues and fluids rather than the suspected presence or absence of infectious organisms determines the use of clean gloves, gowns, masks and eye protection

Sterile field

a microorganism-free area

Sterile technique

practices that keep an area or object free of all microorganisms

Sterilization

a process that destroys all microorganisms, including spores and viruses

Surgical asepsis

practices that keep an area or object free of all microorganisms; also called sterile technique

Systemic infection

occurs when pathogens spread and damage different parts of the body

Universal precautions (UP)

techniques to be used with all clients to decrease the risk of transmitting unidentified pathogens, currently standard precautions incorporate UP and BSI

Vector-borne transmission

transport of an infectious agent from an animal or flying or crawling insect that serves as an intermediate means via biting or depositing feces or other materials on the skin

Vehicle-borne transmission

transport of an infectious agent into a susceptible host via any intermediate substance (e.g. fomites or food)

Virulence

ability to produce disease

Viruses

nucleic acid-based infectious agents

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