In _______ revolutions went through Europe like an electric current, although they failed, they set the scene for other revolutions.
In ________, Louis XVIII of France was overthrown and replaced by Louis Philippe
Louis XVIII and Louis Philippe were ________
Napoleon III was the ______________ of Napoleon Bonaparte
In 1848, Louis Philippe was overthrown and a republic was reestablished. _________ was elected president of the state of France by popular election.
Hungarians break free from their ________________ due to their nationalism. Austria retook the Hungarian empire.
Klemens von Meternick
Astounded by the change, ____________________, the leader of the Congress of Vienna and the Austria-Hungarian representative at the Congress, quits.
_________ rises up unsuccessfully against their Russian and German masters. It is unsuccessful because it doesn't last long.
In 1848, ___________________ wrote the Communist Manifesto.
In 1848, Otto von Bismarck called together the ___________________ because he wanted to unify all German states. He suggested a unified Germany under Prussian rule, as Prussia was the strongest, largest, and most powerful of the German states. The measure failed because the German states did not want to be ruled by Prussia, they were not ready yet. Before this, Otto von Bismarck was unknown.
___________ means pride in one's country or place of origin.
_________________ was the main architect of the nationalist call for a Unified Italy. The move was unsuccessful.
During the Risorgimento, Mazzini formed a nationalist group, a secret subversive society, called _________________.
The ______________ was the movement for a unified Italy.
___________ is the corner of Northern Sardinia.
Austria-Hungary controlled ________________.
The Papal States were ________________.
Southern Italy and Sicily
Spain controlled ________________.
Count Camilo Cavoure
____________________ was the Prime Minister of a small, independent republic in Italy called Piedmont.
Garibaldi learned how to fight from wars in ________________.
Garibaldi's Italian militia was called the _____________ because their shirts and bandannas were red and because Garibaldi had a red beard. The militia of 4,000 men attacked and liberated Sicily, taking it from Spain. This made the unification of Italy possible.
While Garibaldi and his men moved up Italy, Cavour came down Italy forcing the Pope to give up the Papal States. They are now limited to the ________________.
Italy became independent and unified in ________.
The ___________ pizza was made by a chef for the birthday of Queen ____________. It had all of the colors of the Italian flag, red of the tomato, white of mozzarella, and green of basil.
A _________ is an army (paid or unpaid) that is not attached to a nation.
Cavour was the _________ of the unification of Italy.
The _____________ is the center of the German speaking world. The Romans were never able to conquer north of it.
Previous to the unification of Germany, the German speaking world was never unified except under ____________.
In 9 A.D., the Romans suffered a great loss. 20,000 of their men died in an ambush in the ___________ where they were lured into.
The __________________ was a German trade confederation established in the Middle Ages.
Because Romans took over much of Germany, many modern day German cities were Roman ____________.
In 1815, Napoleon made a German Confederation that had only _____ German states even though as many as 300 existed at one point.
Austria opposed the unification of Germany because they were afraid. This is ironic because Austrians speak German and Austria means _____________, as in the _____________ of Germany.
__________ took the Prussian throne in 1857. He appoints Bismarck prime minister, chancellor.
Bismarcks nickname is ___________________.
The _____ in Bismarck's name means that he is a Prussian noble.
Bismarck was a highly educated __________, considered the best German __________ of his day. He entered politics in 1848 and favored Real Politik.
____________ is the political strategy of reaching political goals by any means necessary, at any cost.
Blood and Iron
Bismarck believed in getting his goals by Real Politik, even if it took ____________________, as he did not mind going to war to achieve his goals.
_______ is Czar in Russian and Kaiser in German. ______ is associated with an all powerful leader therefore Czar and Kaiser are the names of the complete rulers of their respective countries.
Bismarck, for Prussia, starts war with __________ over 2 territories in 1864. The Prussians won.
In ________, Bismarck, Prussian, started a war with Austria by sending a letter to the kaiser as if it was from the leader of "Austria." The letter was written by Bismarck. After 7 weeks, the Prussians defeated Austria-Hungary.
In 1870, the __________________ took place between France and Prussia. During the war, Napoleon III was the emperor of France and was captured at the Battle of Sedan. The Prussians bombed Paris, not caring if they killed women or children. France was defeated.
In _______, two years after Italy was unified, the German states were united with the name Deutschland, a German nation. Wilhelm I was crowned but Bismarck was the real power behind the unification of Germany. This caused the balance of power to be upset throughout Europe.
To embarrass the French, Bismarck had Wilhelm I crowned at ____________.
____________ means to circle and strangle a territory. It was how the Spartans won the Peloponesean War.
The Age of Imperialism took place from ________________.
British East India Company
The ______________________ was created by English merchants who came together, private investors who purchased ships, paid sailors, and supplied provisions, creating a corporation in 1600, give or take a year.
____________ is the practice of investing money to gain money
Because the B.E.I.C. was scared of ________, the company offered a percentage of profits to English monarchs in return for being able to fly the English flag. They first made the deal with Elizabeth but it was when she was dying. When James came into power he allowed the company to keep the deal.
The B.E.I.C. expanded in _________. They used encroachment to get a foothold. Over a period of 150 years, the company started holding the sub-continent.
______________ is the gradual process of taking over a native power, of slowly moving in. A way to remember that encroachment has a negative connotation is that it has roach in it.
Battle of Plassey
The _______________________ took place in 1757. Robert Clive was sent by the B.E.I.C. with an army of 5,500. He beat the native Bengali Army of 40,000. The victory gained the company control of 90% of India.
__________ means bow.
__________ is when a nation uses military might to push themselves into someone else's territory.
Lord McCartney's mission in China took place in ________.
The ________________ was a system in which the Chinese government limited trade and contact with foreigners to the coastal city of _________ in the Southeast region of China. They made the foreigners stay on the coast with a wall between them and the public that only certain Chinese traders could cross. The wall was to separate the "foreign devils" from the Chinese, showing their xenophobia.
____________ is the irrational fear of foreigners or strangers.
A ______________ or imbalance existed in the 18th century because the British bought silk, tea, and porcelain with silver but the Chinese bought nothing in return. The British exported more from China then they imported.
To make up for the trade deficit in China, the B.E.I.C. began selling __________ produced in India to the Chinese.
The British government dispatched ________________, a nobleman, to meet the Chinese emperor in 1793. The embassy requested an expansion of trade.
There was disagreement with ___________. Lord McCartney refused to bow to the emperor but they eventually came to a compromise, getting down on one knee.
The _________________ said, "Our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need to import the manufactures of the outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce."
The British make the long journey back to the coast in disappointment. They notice that the Chinese military is a ________________, meaning that it looks strong but can be easily crushed and defeated.
Opium comes from a __________ plant.
Millions of Chinese, ________________, became addicted to opium.
The Chinese Emperor __________ the further sale of opium, but the British did not comply. This caused the Chinese to burn opium ships. The British declare war.
The Opium War lasted from ______________. The British won.
5,000 British soldiers and sailors defeated a nation of nearly 350 million people because their military is superior due to the ___________________.
Yuan Ze River
The Chinese were amazed that the British could sail up the ____________________.
Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing)
The ____________________________ was made in 1842. Because the British won, the Chinese had to allow the British to trade from 5 seaports and the capital of Bejing. China had to give up the fishing island of Hong Kong to the British for 150 years. China had to recognize extraterritoriality, if a British citizen committed a crime in China that person could only be tried by English authorities.
The British turned ____________________ into a great city that prospered.
____________ is when a person is not subject to the laws of the country they are in. It is the immunity from the jurisdiction of a nation.
In the United States extraterritoriality is granted to foreign _____________.
Open Door Policy
The English called the Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing) the ________________________.
The Chinese called the Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing) the _____________________.