Speech Chapters 5-7 Exam
|self-talk|| how we view ourselves often determines how others view us|
intrapersonally communicating within yourself
often silent thinking, an internal whisper of which you are scarcely aware, or our automatic nonverbal reactions
|cognitive dissonance||the imbalance between your values, attitudes, and beliefs. Often leads to a guilty conscience.|
|self-concept|| self confidence|
your idea or picture of yourself
"is the accumulation of knowledge about the self, such as beliefs regarding personality traits, physical characteristics, abilities, values, goals and roles"
real, ideal, public self and self-love
|real self|| what you think of yourself when you are being most honest about your interests, thoughts, emotions, and needs|
dynamic and changing
|ideal self|| who you would like to be or think you should be|
the perfect you, perceived as being perfect by yourself or others or both.
|public self||the one you let others know, the person you have decided to let others see|
|self-love||accepting yourself as a worthy person because you choose to do so. Has nothing to do with the sort of behavior characterized by telling everyone how wonderful you are. It means to love yourself; it doesn't demand the love of others.|
The basis for accepting who and what you are and for realizing that if others can't accept you as you are, that is their problem and not yours.
|johari's window|| created by joseph luft and harry ingram|
free, blind, hidden, unknown areas
|free area||This is the information about the person - behaviour, attitude, feelings, emotion, knowledge, experience, skills, views, etc - known by the person ('the self') and known by the group ('others').|
|hidden area||can cause relationship stress if those things in the hidden area have a direct impact in the relationship|
|blind area||can cause stress if the person might not want to accept what you are saying and you have to say is this beneficial if you disclose the information|
|unknown area||things that neither party knows but usually will find many things out as relationship goes on|
|survival||need appealing to physical and psychological safety of person and family|
|pleasure seeking||need appealing to increasing happiness|
|security||need appealing to keeping things in balance and under control; addressing fears about change, insecurities, uncertainty|
|territoriality||need appealing to concern about what audience already owns or believes will own|
|communication anxiety|| perception of a real or perceived threat or danger|
based on negative intrapersonal messages as they specifically relate to pleasure and security needs
a combination of biological reaction, personality type, and the normal stresses of life that center on a fear of failure
|causes for apprehension||speech anxiety|
|help for communication anxiety||skill training, systematic desensitization, cognitive modification, drug therapy|
|high context communication||emphasis is on how the verbal message can best be conveyed through indirect language and the nonverbal channels of silence and subtle tone of voice|
|low context communication||emphasis is on the expression of ideas through explicit verbal messages|
|self-disclosure|| disclosure rests in self-love, |
*self perceived (I)- the image we project of ourselves
*others perceived (Me)- the person others perceive of you
|seeking approval||communication often revolves around pleasing others|
|emotions||despite what we are thought expressing emotions are normal and natural|
|power||the ability to control what happens and to make choices clarifies several preconceptions.|
*Expert power- your capacity to influence another person because of the knowledge and skills you posses.
*Referent power- most important power, based on loyalty, friendship, affection, and admiration.
*Reward power- requires that you be perceived as the best or only source of desired rewards.
*Coercive power- based on possible negative outcomes that are used as weapons
|self-fulfilled person||allowing expectations about ppl affect our interaction with them in such a way that those expectations are fulfilled|
|sex and gender|| General comm. patterns:|
*Women use more words Men are more competitive Men tend to be task oriented.
- Women are more supportive
- Men are more direct
- Women disclose more personal information
-Women have larger vocabularies for describing emotions and aesthetics
|development relationships||barriers are established in each individual and positively breaking each one is a positive way of developing a relationship|
|presentation skills|| small talk, analytical and holistic thinking|
conversation usually start with small talk and then move to more in-depth sharing.
effects of Culture on Conversations- not all people converse in the same way, many different cultures have different types of communicating.
|listening skills||listen to others concerns, don't assume, before speaking ask self what message is needed.|
|nonverbal skills|| using physical actions such as quick glances or leaning forward, and these actions also play a big role in conversation.|
facial expressions, posture, judge cues of nonverbal behavior
|conflict||a frustrating situation|
|conflict active societies||middle eastern, Mediterranean|
|conflict avoidance societies||asian|
|levels of conflict|| no conflict |
latent conflict-It is the conflict which exists but is not expressed
problems to be solved
fight or flight
|avoidance|| Unassertive and uncooperative.|
Failing to participate in the situation and/or staying neutral at all costs.
|accommodation|| Unassertive and cooperative.|
Letting the other's wishes rule.
|smoothing over||Smoothing over differences to maintain superficial harmony.|
|compromise|| Moderate assertiveness and moderate cooperativeness.|
Working toward partial satisfaction of everyone's concerns.
Seeking acceptable rather than optimal solutions so that no one totally wins or loses.
|competition/aggression|| Assertive and uncooperative.|
Working against the wishes of the other party.
Fighting to dominate in win/lose competition.
Forcing things to a favorable conclusion through the exercise of authority.
|integration/assertion|| Assertive and cooperative.|
Seeking the satisfaction of everyone's concerns by working through differences.
Finding and solving problems so everyone gains as a result.
|assertive communication||assertion and non assertion and aggression|
|arbitration||A third party acts as a "judge" and has the power to issue a decision that is binding on all disputing parties.|
|mediation||counseling setting to hear both sides|