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histology

the study of tissues

types of tissues

epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve

Nervous tissue

brain, spinal cord, and nerves

internal communication

nervous tissue

muscle tissue

contracts to cause movement

skeletal muscle tissue

muscles attached to bone

cardiac muscle tissue

muscles of the heart

smooth muscle tissue

muscles of walls of hollow organs

connective tissue

bones, tendons, fat and other soft padding tissue

supports, protects and binds other tissues together

connective tissue

what joins cells together to form tissues

tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions

tight junction

unbreakable junction that encircles the cell

desmosome

anchoring junction scattererd along the sides of cells- looks like a spider

gap junction

a nexus-column, that allows chemcial substances to pass between cells

tight junctions

form water tight seals between epithelial cells-prevents molecules from passing through extracellular space between adjacent epithelial cells

desomes

strongly holds cells together, connects cytoskeleton and plasma membrane of one cell to the plasma membrane and cytoskeletone of another cell

Gap Junction

tunnels(channels), cylinders that allow chemicals, to pass from cytoplasm of one cell directly to cytoplasm of another cell

allows action potentials to spread from one cells directly to the next cell and next

gap junction

allows cells to communicate and synchronize their activities

gap junction

Epithelial Tissue

tightly packed cells, single or multiple layers of cells, continouse sheets held together by tight junctions and desmosomes

Apical surface

exposed to cavity or exterior

basal suface

anchors cells to basement membrane

basal lamina

composed to proteins secreted by epithelial cells

reticular lamina

composed of proteins secreted by connective tissue cells beneath basement membrane

Avascular

no blood vessels directly to the epithelial cells, they are nourished by diffusion in underlying connective tissue

innervated

supplied by nerve fibers

regenerative

epithelial cells are able to replace lost or injured cells at a high rate through cell division

Functions of Epithelial Tissue

protection, filtration, lubrication, secretion, absorbtion, digestion, transport, excretion

Single Squamous Eithelia

single layer of flattened cells, diffusion and filtration, disc shapped nuclei, provides a slick, friction reducing lining in lymphatic and cardiovascular systems

Lining of heart, blood vessels hollow organcs of the cardiovascular system, lymphatic vessels

Endothelium- inner lining- single squamous epithelia

epithelium of serous membranes in the ventral body cavity

mesothelium-middle covering- single squamous epithelia

simple cubodial epithelia

single layer of cube like cells with large spherical central nuclei, functions to secrete and absorb

kidney tubules, ducts, secretory portions of small glands and ovary surface

simple cubofial epithelia

simple columnar epithelia

single layer of tall cells with oval nuclei, many contain cilia, goblet cells found in this layer, functions include secretion and absorbtion

nonciliated simple columnar epithelia

line digestive tract and gallbladder

ciliated type

line small bronchi, uterine tubes,some regions of uterus

pseudostratified columnar epithelia

Single layer that varies in heights. Often ciliated. All cells attached to basement membrane but may not reach apical side. Nuclei at different heights. Function: Similar to simple columnar (secretion of mucous and absorption). Location: Non-ciliated found in ducts that carry sperm. Ciliated type found in trachea and much of the upper respiratory tract.

stratified squamous epithelia

thick membrane composed of several layers of cells, APICAL CELLS ARE FLAT, deep cells are cubodial or columnar, basal cells coninually dividing, apical cells replaced from below by dividing basal cells PROTECTS UNDERLYING AREAS SUBJECTED TO ABRASION

Keratinized stratified squamous

apical cells filled with protein keratin which is water proof, friction proof, bacteria proof, located on the spidermis of skin

prevent water loss and protect abrasion

keratinized stratified squamous

nonkeratinized stratified squamous

apical cells have no keratin but instead are moist LOCATION: mouth, espohagus, tongue, vagina

Protects from abrasion

nonkeratinized stratified squamous

stratifed columnar epithelia

apical cells are columnar, limited distribution in the body FUNCTION protection and secretion

pharynx, male urethra, lining some gladular ducts and transition areas between other types of epithelia

stratifed columnar epithelia

stratified cuboidal epithelia

apical cells are cubodial, has two or more layers FUNCTION: protection

large ducts of glands like weat and salivary glands, mammary glands

stratified cuboidal epithelia

transitional epithelia

several cells layers, basal cells are cubodial, surface (apical) cells are dome shaped, FUNCTION allows for stratching as organ fills

urinary bladder, uterus, part of urethra

transitional

Glandular epithelia

one or more epithelial cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid- into a duct, onto a surface or into interstitial fluid

endocrine glands

ductless glands that produce horomones, secrete horomones into interstital fluid, hormones travel through lymph or blood to target organs FUNCTION maintain homeostatis by regulating bodily activites

pituitary, tyroid, adrenals

endocrine glands

amino acids, proteins, glycoproteins, steroids

endocrine glands

exocrine glands

secretes products onto body surfaces or into body cavities via duct,

sweat, milk, salvia, digestive juices

exocrine gland

goblet cell

uniceller gland, found in the epithelia lining digestive, respiratory urniary and reproductive tracts- exocrine

multicellular exocrine glands

composed of a duct and a secretory unit

duct type

simple (unbranched) compound (branched)

structure of multicellular exocrine glands

tubular, avelolar, tubuloalevelor

Merocrine

products are secreted by exocytosis from secretory granules, (pancreas, sweat, salivary glands)

holocrine

products are secreted by the rupture of gland cells- entire cell is secreted, new cells continously form

sebaceous gland

exocrine gland-holocrine

apocrine

apical part of cell fills with secretion then breaks off and is secreted, cell then repairs itself

mammary gland

apocrine gland

Types of Connective tissue

connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone tissue, blood

mesenchyme

common tissue of origin for connective tissue, embryonic connective tissue, gel-like ground substance with fibers and starshaped mesenchymal cells

Functions of connective tissue

binding, support, insulation, transpotation(blood)

Structural Elements of connective tissue

cells rarely touch each other. ground substance is unstructed material that fills the space between cells and fibers

cells of connective tissue

-cytes are mature cells of connective tissue, -blasts are mitoctically active and secretory cells

fibroblasts

connective tissue proper

chondroblasts

cartilage (connective tissue)

osteoblasts

bone (connective tissue)

hematopoietic stem cells

bone marrow

erythrocytes

red blood cells

adipocytes

adipose tissue (connective tissue) Fat cells

ground substance of connective tissue

medium which solutes diffuse between blood capaillaries and cells

interstital fluid, adhesion proteins

ground substance of connective tissue

proteoglycans

ground substance of connective tissue, protein core that traps water in varying amounts affecting the viscosity

hyaluronic acid

viscous, slippery, binds cells together and lubricates

chondroitin sulfate

jelly-like procides support and adhesiveness in cartilage, bone, skin and blood vessels

adhesion proteins

connects to cell membranes of cells- anchors cells to fibers and provide traction of cells movement along fibers

fibers

secreted by cells and run like support beams through the ground substance: collagen, elastic, reticular

collagen fibers

strongest and most abundant, bundles of protein- fibrocartlidge

elastic fibers

networks of long, think elastin fibers that allow for stretch, strands of protein: found in skin, blood vessels and lungs

reticular fibers

short, fine and highly branched collagenous fibers. Thin collagen fibers

form delicate branching networks providing support for fat cells, skeletal and smooth muscle cells and cells in spleen and lymph nodes and bone marrow

reticular fibers

loose connective tissue- Areolar

widely distributed underneath epithelia of body. FUNCTION: provides support, holds interstital fluids, defends against infection. stores fatm wraps and cushions organs

fibroblasts, macropages, plasma cellsmast cells, adiposytes

Areolar- loose connective tissue

Adipose Connective Tissue

specialized areolar CT packed adipocytes, reserves food stores, insulates against heat loss, and supports and protects

surrounds capilaries

areloar loose connective tissue

under skin, around kidneys, within abdomen, and in breasts

adipose connective tissue- white fat stores energy: brown fat found in infants to generate heat

reticular connective tissue

loose ground substance with reticular fibers, like in a mesh network to form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cells

tissue found in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and the spleen

reticular connective tissue

Dense regular tissue

packed parallel collagen fiberwith a few elastic fibers, major cell type: fibroblasts, only resists pulling in one direction FUNCTION strong attachement

tissue that is found in tendons( muscle to bone), ligaments(bone to bone) and aponeuroses

dense regular connective tissue

dense irregular tissue

irregularty arranged collaged fibers with few fibroblasts, withstands pulling in many directions

tissue found in dermmis, submucosa of the digestive tract and fibrous capsules of organs and joints

dense irregular connective tissue

elastic connective tissue

very strong with ability to stretch and recoil due to elastic

tissue located in elastic arteries such as the aorta

elastic connective tissue

cartilage

middle ground between bone and tissue, tough but flexible, it is avascular and not innervated, growth and repair is slow

chondrocytes

cells in the space of the matrix called lacunae in cartilage

hyaline cartilage

most abundant, weakest, amorphous firm matrix with impereptible network or collagen fibers

covers ends of long bones, connects ribs to sternum, nose, rings in trachea, epophyseal plates and embryonic skeleton

hyaline cartilage

reduce friction, absorbs function during movement, slightly flexible, supports

hyaline cartilage

elastic cartilage

made with protein elasti, FUNCTION maintains shape and structure whihle allowing flexibility

supports external ear, epiglottis

elastic cartilage

fibrocartilage

strongest cartilage, thich collage fibers FUNCTION provides strong connections, and absorbs compression shock

pubic symphsis, intervertebral discs, menisci of knee joint

fibrocartilage CT

Bone Tissue ( Connective tissue) osseous

rock like hardness of bone is due to inorganic calcium salts, flexible strength is due to collaged fibers found in bone, osteocytes are found in lacuae, located in the skeleton

compact bone

forms solid outer shell of bones, characterized by osteons

spongy bone

porous bone within the interior of a bone or the ends of bone, characterized by trabeulae(bone spikes) with spaces,

houses bone marrow within spaces

spongy bone

supports body, provides levers for muscular action and protects organs, stores calcium, minerals and fat,

bone tissue

red bone marrow

produces blood cells in bone tissue

yellow bone marrow

stores fat in the bone tissue

Blood

connective tissue that does NOT connect things does NOT provie mechanical support

what does blood consist of?

cells (blood cells) surrounded by a nonliving matrix (blood plasma)

transports repiratory gses, nutrients, wastes and other substances located within blood vessels

blood (connective tissue)

muscle tissue-skeltal muscle

long. cylindrical multinucleate cells, obvious striations, FUNCTIONS voluntary movement, locomotion, manipulations of the enviroment, facial expresions

skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin

skeletal muscle

cardiac muscle- muscle tissue

branching straited, generally uninucleated cells that interdigitate at specialized juctions

as it contracts it propels blood into circulation, involuntary control

cardiac muscle

smooth muscle

spindle shaped cells with central muclei, no straiations cells arranged closely to form sheets

loacted in mostly in the walls of hollow organs, propels substances or objects along internal passageways, involuntary control

smooth muscle

cutaneous membrane

skin- covers the body surface

mucous membranes

line body cavirites open to the exterior (digestive and respiratory tracts)

serous membranes

membranes in a closed ventral body cavity

parietal serosae

line internal body walls

visceral serosae

cover internal organs

steps in tissue repair

1. inflammation 2. orgnaization and restored blood supply 3. regeneration and fibrosis

cutaneous membranes

skin, keratinized stratified squamous epithelium- connective tissue is dense irrengular

mucous membranes

stratified squamous or simple columnar

adipose tissue

areolar tissue

smooth muscle

skeletal muscle

simple squamous epithielum

simple cubidoal epithelum

simple columnar epithelum

hyline cartildge

cadiac muscle

The epithelial membrane that lines the closed ventral cavities of the body.

Serous membrane

The epithelial membrane that lines body cavities open to the exterior

Mucous membrane

Consists of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

Cutaneous membrane

Found lining the digestive and respiratory tracts

Mucous membrane

Lines blood vessels and the heart

Endothelium

Forms much of the fetal skeleton and covers the articular surfaces of long bones.

Hyaline cartilage

Structural support of the external ear and other structures that need support with flexibility

Elastic cartilage

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