What is speech reading?
perceiving speech by using visual cues to supplement whatever auditory information is available
What 4 factors affect speechreading?
2) signal code
What are the factors of the speaker?
1) familiarity of speaker
2) facial expressions
4) rate of speech
5) distractors (gum chewing, smoking)
7) extent of image
What is the rate of normal speech?
15 phonemes per second
How many movements per second can the eye record?
What is best for speechreading
slightly slower than normal rate with precise not exaggerated articulation is best
T/F Females are easier to speechread.
What is primarily responsible for intelligibility?
consonants, because their production requires manipulation of various articulators: lips, tongue, and teeth
What are distinctive features?
voicing, nasality, affrication, duration, place of articulation
What are visemes?
group of phonemes that look alike when spoken.
/m/, /b/ and /p/
What are homophenes?
words that look alike when spoken.
bet, bed, men
How many phonemes are there in English?
What environmental factors affect hearing?
Distance from source of sound
How does redundancy effect speechreading?
more redundancy, easier speechreading
What is the ideal distance for speechreading?
What is the ideal angle for speechreading?
T/F those who are hearing impaired are better speechreaders
How is speechreading ability assessed?
What is vision-only?
perceiving speech via visual cues only
What are some analytic activities for speechreading therapy?
1) Present syllable pairs with initial consonants that are same or different.
i.e. /ba/ and /ba/ or /la/ and /ba/. Ask client if initial consonant is same or different
2) Present 3-4 words and ask which has /m/ in the initial position. i.e. talk, mop, tool
3) Present single words and ask the speechreader to identify each word from a short list
What are some synthetic activities?
1) Show speechreader a picture and ask pt. to give 4-6 words to describe picture
2)Name a topic (i.e. popular TV shows) and have speechreader identify the name of each show you present
3) Present a short paragraph and ask the speechreader to answer 3-4 questions about it.
Where do the majority of phonemes occur in connected speech?