motivation/social

Created by AmyR21 

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psychological drives

sex, curiosity, gregariousness (to belong)

solomon

opponent process theory - pleasurable stimuli evoke an opposing inhibitory process

hedonism

an ethical system that evaluates the pursuit of pleasure as the highest good

insulin

secreted by the pancreas, it enables cells to extract glucose from the blood

Masters and Johnson

phases in human sexual response: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution

catharsis

(psychoanalysis) purging of emotional tensions

Maslow

hierarchy of needs: physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, self actualization

Zuckerman

sensation seeking scale: thrill and adventure; experience seeking; disinhibition; susceptibility to boredom

Berlyne

optimal state theory - optmal arousal state for max efficiency; below it were bored, above were anxious

James-Lange theory

theory of emotion; stimuli in environment cause physiological change in bodies, then emotion comes; ex. I see a bear which cause my heart to race, then I become afraid

plutchik's circle

mixing emotions to produce new blends

Lewis and Saarni

Five elements of emotions: elicitors, receptors, states, expressions, experience

Ekman

the smile is universally interpreted cross-culturally

Sympathetic nervous system

nervous system that prepares body for emergency, fight or flight

parasympathetic nervous system

nervous system that controls normal body operations

Selye

general adaptation syndrome: alarm, resistance, exhaustion (clock, weights, cars!); racehorses vs turtles

Likert

came up with method of summated ratings, 5 category scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree

Festinger

theory of cognitive dissonance - tendency for people to seek a state of consonance between their behaviors and attitudes

Determinants of attraction

proximity, similarity, personal attributes, familiarity are ____

Heider and Newcomb

A-B-X Theory - person A and B have attraction toward each other and toward person or concept X

Gergen

most prominent names associated with social exchange theory, if cost outruns rewards, attraction declines

Winch

associated with complementarity theory; aspects of personality must complement not conflict

Aronson and Linder

Gain Loss model of attraction. movement from negative to positive evaluation of a person leads to stronger attraction than from neutral to positive

Sternberg

Trianglular theory of love - intimacy, passion and commitment. romantic, companionate, fatuous love

Janis

studied groupthink connected with the kennedy administration during the bay of pigs invasion

proxemics

deals with research relating to territoriality, personal space, unseen dividing lines, and the dynamics of invading another's personal space (Hall)

McGuire's inoculation theory

theory of persuasion which states that people can be immunized against subsequent persuasive communication if they have been familiarized in advance with the arguments and counterarguments

Freedman's foot in the doortechnique

persuasion technique that demonstrates we are likely to agree to large commitment if we have agreed in advance to smaller commitment

door in the face technique

begins with a huge commitment potential and relief comes when a more modest option is given

sherif

studied the auto-kinetic effect and conformity

asch

line judgment technique and conformity

informational influence

influence when person conforms because he thinks the group is correct

normative influence

influence when person conforms because he fears ostracism from the group

Milgram

studied conformity by conducting shock experiment and found people surprisingly obedient to commands

dogmatism

arrogant, stubborn assertion of opinion or belief (Rokeach)

Machiavellianism

the tendency to direct much of one's behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of other people for personal gain (Christie)

just-world hypothesis

Lerner - people like to believe that the world is just and that individuals get what they deserve

central route

the route of persuasion that contains convincing content

peripheral route

the route of persuasion that pertains tot eh attractiveness or expertise of the source

Klapper

developed the three elements of communication: source, channel, audience

Lewin/Heider

Attribution definitional model -
Behavioral effect (E) = f(environment + personal force)

self-serving bias

"halo" type evaluation of one's own behavior and motives

Fromm

sociopsychoanalytic - 5 types of love: brotherly, motherly, erotic, self, and supernatural

neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness

"The Big Five" - Norman, Costa, McCrae, Goldberg, Eysenck developed these characteristics

Interactionist

personality theory based on interaction b/t a given personality trait and a given situation

positive psychology

three pillars of this theory are positive emotions, positive character, positive groups/communication

parapraxes

freudian slips of the tongue (betraying unconscious motivations)

cathexis

freudian concept of investing emtional energy in another person (bonding) by positive feelings

anticathexis

freudian concept of investing emtional energy in another person (bonding) by negative feelings

Kelly

personal construct theory; C-P-C cycle (circumspection, preemption, control)

Cattell

prominent name in factor analysis; 16 personality factor scale (16 PF)

Thomas and Chess

Temperament. 9 basic characteristics (activity level, rhythmicity, approach, reactivity threshold, intensity, dominant mood, distractibility, attention span

Murray

personology; TAT tests (thematic apperception tests)

Rogers

developed the Q-sort; measured difference between idea and actual self

Gough

developed the California psychological inventory; standardized on a diagnosed normal sample from population

McKinley and Hathaway

developed the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI); standardized on diagnosed abnormal clinical subpopulations

Rotter

developed the internal-external control scale (I-E)

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