Only to describe magnitude (distance).
Describes magnitude and direction.
Displacement and position are quantities of...
Motion with constant velocity. (same as uniform speed)
Motion with constant velocity. (same as uniform motion)
Distance traveled by an object overtime. (scalar)
Displacement traveled by an object overtime.
No change in speed. (no acceleration)
Newton's Second Law of motion
Acceleration of a mass is porportional to the net force applied to it.
Amount of matter in a object.
Force of gravity acting upon an object.
Heat energy is a form of _________ energy
Most organized form of energy. Anything that moves
Electrical energy is a form of ________ energy
Chemical energy is a form of ________ energy
The bottom of a pendulum contains this type of energy
Life arrose from non-living matter.
Someone who tested spontaneous generation with jars of meat. Lead to the discovery of active principle.
Air created micro-organisms.
Tested the theory of active principle with a swan flask. Lead to biogenesis
Living organisms could only be produced by living things.
Discovered cells under a microscope through a thin slice of corks.
First to describe single-cell organisms as he studied blood cells, pond water, and matter scraped from his teeth.
The two S
Discovered and created the cell theory. Studied plants and animal cells, noticing that they had nucleis.
Tested the two S's hypothesises and concluded that "Where a cell exists, there must have been a pre-existing cell".
All organisms are composed of one or more cells. Cells are the smallest funtion unit in life. All cells are produced from other cells.
_______________ need energy. Produce wastes. reproduce. grow. respond and adapt to environment.
Contains simple and compound microscropes.
View objects illuminated by visible light.
Objects viewed by a beam of electrons. (instead of light)
Includes TEM and SEM.
Transmission Electron Microscope
Produces 2 dimensional images of a specimen using a beam of electrons.
Scanning Electron Microscope
Produces 3 dimensional images of a specimen using a beam of light.
Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope
Produces 2 and 3 dimensional images of a specimen using a laser that 'slices' the 3D specimen.
Scanning Tunnelling Microscope
Produces a 3 dimensional image of a specimen as a metal probe brought near a specimen, electrons flow onto the atoms of the specimen.
Protects the cells interior from its exterior.
Vesicles are located at this place to transport materials in and out of the cell.
Lipids are the composition of this cell structure. (Phospholipid bilayer)
Directs all cell activities and contains DNA.
Contains, the nuclear pores, nuclear envolope, and nucleolus.
Rhibosomes are produced in this location inside the nucleus of a cell.
Digestive enzymes (type of protein).
This cell structure is produced in the golgi apparatus.
Contains a rough and smooth cell structure.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Studded with rhibosomes.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
This cell structure builds proteins which are then packaged in vesicles for transport.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Makes lipids and packages larger molecules (lipids and proteins) in vesicles. These packages are then transported to the golgi app.
'Wrapping paper on a present'.
Acts like a post office.
Sorts and repackages the molecules which are then distributed to other parts of the cell.
Where lysosomes are produced.
Power house of a cell.
Produces ATP for the cell.
Located outside the nucleus. Responsible for the divisons of cells.
Storage space for food water and minerals in a cell.
Only plant cells have this as it is rigid and supportive.
This structure of the sell is composed of cellulose.
Only plant cells have this as it is a bigger storage place for food, water and minerals in the cell.
Organelle of photosynthesis.
Composed of phospholipids and proteins arranged in two layers called phospholipid bilayer.
Composed of hydropillic heads and hydrophobic tails.
Moving certain substances across the membrane.
Permable, semi-permable, impermeable.
These types of molecules carry special sugars called glycoproteins.
Forms tunnel-like pores in the cell membrane allowing electrically charged ions in and out of the cells.
Allows electrically charged ions in and out of cells.
Changes shape to allow certain molecules cross the cell membrane.
Allows certain molecules cross the cell membrane.
Passive and Active as a type of what transport?
A type of selective transport which allows no energy to be used.
Need use of ATP to transport substances pass the concentration gradient.
Diffusion and Osmosis as a type of what transport?
A type of passive transport describing the movement of particles from high to low concentration.
A form of diffusion involving the movement of water molecules from a high to low concentration.
the constant movment of particles.
Molecules are distributed evenly.
Difference in concentration between two areas.
Concentration gradient, temperature, and particle size contribute to factors of __________?
A membrane that allows the movement of molecules based on size.
Contains more solute.
Contains less solute.
Contains less water.
Contains more water.
Cell/solution is ________ to the cell/solution as there is equalibrium.
Water pressure inside plant cells that allows them to remain rigid.
Cell walls help this type of pressure become possible.
Type of active transport protein as it ______ ions in and out of the cell. (Potassium and Sodium ions)
Cells engulf large particles by extending their cytoplasm around the particle.
This process is used by cells to take in substances, in which the membrane folds in, encloses the item in a sphere, then pinches off a vesicle.
A type of process that involves Phago and Pinocytosis.
Large solid particles are ingolfed.
Small liquid particles are ingolfed.
A process that expells compounds into the external environment by fusing the membrane of a vesicle or vacuole with the cell membrane
Process used to filter water
Process used to filter out wastes in blood while keeping in the important components (blood cells, proteins etc). Involves a dialysis tubing.
Process to deliver medication into a body though a semi-permeable skin patch.
Biochemical process powered by light energy in which carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil are combined to make glucose and oxygen.
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light Energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Upper and lower cells of a leaf that are tightly interlocked to prevent physical damage or penetration by pathogens. (disease)
Substance on the top layer of epiidermis that acts as a water barrier to conserve water.
One of the main types of photosynthesis cells of plants. Long and narrow that are closly packed together containing chloroplasts.
One of the main types of photosynthesis cells of plants that are located right beneath the upper epidermis.
Spongy Tissue cells
One of the main types of photosynthesis cells of plants that are lossely packed and contain few chloroplasts. These cells help the leaf exchange gases and water with the environment.
Spongy Tissue cells
One of the main types of photosynthesis cells of plants that helps the leaf exchange gases and water with the environment.
Guards cells surrounding the _______ therefore controlling the opening and closing of it.
Stomatas are surronded by these types of cells, controlling their opening and closing.
Allows gass in and out of the leaf.
Searies of tubes that transport fluids. (Leaf veins)
This vascular tissue carries water and minerals from the roots to the leaves.
This vascular tissue carries sugars produced by the leaves to various parts of the plant.
The xylem and phloem are arranged together in this type of bundle.
Both plants and animals consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide and water during _________.
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (heat etc)
Evaporation of water from leaves.
In transpiration, water moves into the guard cells by ________.
In transpiration, water moves into the guard cells by osmosis, and as it does so, the pressure inside the cells _______ and causes the cell to swell.
Light, humidity and temperature relate to the factors of _______.
transport of nutrients and wastes over short and long distances.
Transportation of materials within the body of plant involves two types of vascular tissue, ________ and _________. (water, sugars)
Consist of long tubes consisting of only cell wall.
Xylem tissues form _______.
Type of vessel that transports water and inorganic minerals through the plant from the root to stem and leaves.
Living cells form ______ vessels with porus cell walls. Consists of sieve tubes and companion cells arranged from end to end.
_______ vessels transports organic food material (produced by leaves during photosynthesis) to all parts of the plant.
Water enters the plants roots by ________.
Type of diffusion used by transport proteins to aid the diffusion of particles across the membrane of a cell.
Root cells use facilitate diffusion and ______________ to move minerals across their membranes. (Uses ATP)
The attraction between molecules (water)
Tendancy for water molecules to stick to certain surfaces.
Environmental factors that induce a responce from an organism.
Plant responce to a stimulus.
A plant's responce to light.
A plant's responce to gravity.
Type of growth chemical in a plant that regulates the amount, type and direction of growth.
(Eyepiece Power)(Objective Power)
(FOV) / (# of cells that fit across the diameter)
Increase or decrease in magnification or FOV
Magnification(1) x FOV(1) = Magnification(1) x FOV(2)
Mixture and Pure substances are elements of _______.
Division of hetrogeneous and homogeneous.
A mechanical mixture.
Visiable (You can see the different elements/compounds inside)
Not visable (You cannot see the different elements/compounds inside)
Division of elements and compounds.
Cannot be chemically broken down further
Composed of two or more elements. Can be chemically broken down.
All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed.
Billard Ball model.
Raisin bun model
Atoms are made of positively charged sphere with small electrical charges them.
Concluded that the nucleus of an atom contained all positive charges and negative charges located great distances away.
Discovered what the nucleus was composed of and electrons.
Concluded that electrons exist in energy levels.
This part of the atom consist of protons and neutrons.
Horizontal rows of the periodic table are called...
Groups or families
Verticle columns are _______ or ________ of elements.
Elements in columns share similar _________ and chemical properties.
Elements in columns share similar physical and ________ properties.
Ability of a metal to be stretched.
Ability of a metal to be bent
Group 1 elemets.
Alkali Earth Metals
Group 2 elements.
Group 3-12 elements.
Group 17 elements.
Group 18 elements.
These elements have either extra positive or negative charges.
Consist of cations and anions.
Another name for metals.
Another name for non-metals.
_____ are made up of positive and negative ions but the positive ion is hydrogen (H+).
These compounds are highly soluable in water.
Law of Conservation of mass
During a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reacting substances are always equal to the total mass of the resulting substances.
Energy is released/consumed, odour change, color change, irreversable, formation of a precipitate (somtimes) are all forms of what change?
element + element --> compound
Simple decomposition reaction
compound --> element + element
Single Replacement reaction
element + compound --> new compound + new element
Double Replacement reactions
compound + compound --> new compound + new compound
compound + oxygen --> most common oxides.