Science 10 Final

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Everything...(Biology, Chemistry, and Physics) Set it so that you see the 'Definition' of the cards as it is the question and the 'Term' is the answer.

Scalers

Only to describe magnitude (distance).

Vectors

Describes magnitude and direction.

Vector quantities

Displacement and position are quantities of...

Uniform motion

Motion with constant velocity. (same as uniform speed)

Uniform speed

Motion with constant velocity. (same as uniform motion)

Speed

Distance traveled by an object overtime. (scalar)

Velocity

Displacement traveled by an object overtime.

Constant motion

No change in speed. (no acceleration)

Newton's Second Law of motion

Acceleration of a mass is porportional to the net force applied to it.

Mass

Amount of matter in a object.

Weight

Force of gravity acting upon an object.

Kinetic energy

Heat energy is a form of _________ energy

Kinetic energy

Most organized form of energy. Anything that moves

Potential energy

Electrical energy is a form of ________ energy

Potential energy

Chemical energy is a form of ________ energy

Kinetic energy

The bottom of a pendulum contains this type of energy

Spontaneous generation

Life arrose from non-living matter.

Redi

Someone who tested spontaneous generation with jars of meat. Lead to the discovery of active principle.

Active principle

Air created micro-organisms.

Pasteur

Tested the theory of active principle with a swan flask. Lead to biogenesis

Biogenesis

Living organisms could only be produced by living things.

Hooke

Discovered cells under a microscope through a thin slice of corks.

Lee

First to describe single-cell organisms as he studied blood cells, pond water, and matter scraped from his teeth.

The two S

Discovered and created the cell theory. Studied plants and animal cells, noticing that they had nucleis.

Virchow

Tested the two S's hypothesises and concluded that "Where a cell exists, there must have been a pre-existing cell".

Cell theory

All organisms are composed of one or more cells. Cells are the smallest funtion unit in life. All cells are produced from other cells.

Living organisms

_______________ need energy. Produce wastes. reproduce. grow. respond and adapt to environment.

Light micoscope

Contains simple and compound microscropes.

Compound microscope

View objects illuminated by visible light.

Electron microscope

Objects viewed by a beam of electrons. (instead of light)

Electron microscope

Includes TEM and SEM.

Transmission Electron Microscope

Produces 2 dimensional images of a specimen using a beam of electrons.

Scanning Electron Microscope

Produces 3 dimensional images of a specimen using a beam of light.

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope

Produces 2 and 3 dimensional images of a specimen using a laser that 'slices' the 3D specimen.

Scanning Tunnelling Microscope

Produces a 3 dimensional image of a specimen as a metal probe brought near a specimen, electrons flow onto the atoms of the specimen.

Cell membrane

Protects the cells interior from its exterior.

Cell membrane

Vesicles are located at this place to transport materials in and out of the cell.

Cell membrane

Lipids are the composition of this cell structure. (Phospholipid bilayer)

Nucleus

Directs all cell activities and contains DNA.

Nucleus

Contains, the nuclear pores, nuclear envolope, and nucleolus.

Nucleolus

Rhibosomes are produced in this location inside the nucleus of a cell.

Lysosomes

Digestive enzymes (type of protein).

Lysosomes

This cell structure is produced in the golgi apparatus.

Endoplasmic reticulum

Contains a rough and smooth cell structure.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Studded with rhibosomes.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

This cell structure builds proteins which are then packaged in vesicles for transport.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Makes lipids and packages larger molecules (lipids and proteins) in vesicles. These packages are then transported to the golgi app.

Vesicles

'Wrapping paper on a present'.

Golgi apparatus

Acts like a post office.

Golgi apparatus

Sorts and repackages the molecules which are then distributed to other parts of the cell.

Golgi apparatus

Where lysosomes are produced.

Mitochondria

Power house of a cell.

Mitochondria

Produces ATP for the cell.

Centrials

Located outside the nucleus. Responsible for the divisons of cells.

Vacuoles

Storage space for food water and minerals in a cell.

Cell wall

Only plant cells have this as it is rigid and supportive.

Cell wall

This structure of the sell is composed of cellulose.

Central vacuoles

Only plant cells have this as it is a bigger storage place for food, water and minerals in the cell.

Chloroplasts

Organelle of photosynthesis.

Cell membrane

Composed of phospholipids and proteins arranged in two layers called phospholipid bilayer.

Phospolipid bilayer

Composed of hydropillic heads and hydrophobic tails.

Selective transport

Moving certain substances across the membrane.

Membranes

Permable, semi-permable, impermeable.

Protein

These types of molecules carry special sugars called glycoproteins.

Channel Proteins

Forms tunnel-like pores in the cell membrane allowing electrically charged ions in and out of the cells.

Channel Proteins

Allows electrically charged ions in and out of cells.

Carrier Proteins

Changes shape to allow certain molecules cross the cell membrane.

Carrier proteins

Allows certain molecules cross the cell membrane.

Selective transport

Passive and Active as a type of what transport?

Passive transport

A type of selective transport which allows no energy to be used.

Active transport

Need use of ATP to transport substances pass the concentration gradient.

Passive Transport

Diffusion and Osmosis as a type of what transport?

Diffusion

A type of passive transport describing the movement of particles from high to low concentration.

Osmosis

A form of diffusion involving the movement of water molecules from a high to low concentration.

Brownian motion

the constant movment of particles.

Equilibrium

Molecules are distributed evenly.

Concentration gradient

Difference in concentration between two areas.

Diffusion

Concentration gradient, temperature, and particle size contribute to factors of __________?

Dialysis membrane

A membrane that allows the movement of molecules based on size.

Hypertonic

Contains more solute.

Hypotonic

Contains less solute.

Hypertonic

Contains less water.

Hypotonic

Contains more water.

Isotonic

Cell/solution is ________ to the cell/solution as there is equalibrium.

Turgor pressure

Water pressure inside plant cells that allows them to remain rigid.

Turgor pressure

Cell walls help this type of pressure become possible.

Pumps

Type of active transport protein as it ______ ions in and out of the cell. (Potassium and Sodium ions)

Endocytosis

Cells engulf large particles by extending their cytoplasm around the particle.

Endocytosis

This process is used by cells to take in substances, in which the membrane folds in, encloses the item in a sphere, then pinches off a vesicle.

Endocytosis

A type of process that involves Phago and Pinocytosis.

Phagocytosis

Large solid particles are ingolfed.

Pinocytosis

Small liquid particles are ingolfed.

Exocytosis

A process that expells compounds into the external environment by fusing the membrane of a vesicle or vacuole with the cell membrane

Reverse osmosis

Process used to filter water

Kidney dialysis

Process used to filter out wastes in blood while keeping in the important components (blood cells, proteins etc). Involves a dialysis tubing.

Transdermal patch

Process to deliver medication into a body though a semi-permeable skin patch.

Photosynthesis

Biochemical process powered by light energy in which carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil are combined to make glucose and oxygen.

Photosynthesis

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light Energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2

Epidermal Cell

Upper and lower cells of a leaf that are tightly interlocked to prevent physical damage or penetration by pathogens. (disease)

Waxy cuticle

Substance on the top layer of epiidermis that acts as a water barrier to conserve water.

Palisade Tissue

One of the main types of photosynthesis cells of plants. Long and narrow that are closly packed together containing chloroplasts.

Palisade Tissue

One of the main types of photosynthesis cells of plants that are located right beneath the upper epidermis.

Spongy Tissue cells

One of the main types of photosynthesis cells of plants that are lossely packed and contain few chloroplasts. These cells help the leaf exchange gases and water with the environment.

Spongy Tissue cells

One of the main types of photosynthesis cells of plants that helps the leaf exchange gases and water with the environment.

Stomata

Guards cells surrounding the _______ therefore controlling the opening and closing of it.

Guard cells

Stomatas are surronded by these types of cells, controlling their opening and closing.

Stomata

Allows gass in and out of the leaf.

Vascular Tissue

Searies of tubes that transport fluids. (Leaf veins)

Xylem

This vascular tissue carries water and minerals from the roots to the leaves.

Phloem

This vascular tissue carries sugars produced by the leaves to various parts of the plant.

Vascular Bundle

The xylem and phloem are arranged together in this type of bundle.

Cellular respiration

Both plants and animals consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide and water during _________.

Cellular Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (heat etc)

Transpiration

Evaporation of water from leaves.

Osmosis

In transpiration, water moves into the guard cells by ________.

Increases

In transpiration, water moves into the guard cells by osmosis, and as it does so, the pressure inside the cells _______ and causes the cell to swell.

Transpiration

Light, humidity and temperature relate to the factors of _______.

Transportation systems

transport of nutrients and wastes over short and long distances.

Xylem, Phloem

Transportation of materials within the body of plant involves two types of vascular tissue, ________ and _________. (water, sugars)

Xylem tissues

Consist of long tubes consisting of only cell wall.

Xylem vessels

Xylem tissues form _______.

Xylem vessels

Type of vessel that transports water and inorganic minerals through the plant from the root to stem and leaves.

Phloem

Living cells form ______ vessels with porus cell walls. Consists of sieve tubes and companion cells arranged from end to end.

Phloem vessels

_______ vessels transports organic food material (produced by leaves during photosynthesis) to all parts of the plant.

Osmosis

Water enters the plants roots by ________.

Facilitate diffusion

Type of diffusion used by transport proteins to aid the diffusion of particles across the membrane of a cell.

Active transport

Root cells use facilitate diffusion and ______________ to move minerals across their membranes. (Uses ATP)

Cohesion

The attraction between molecules (water)

Adhesion

Tendancy for water molecules to stick to certain surfaces.

Stimuli

Environmental factors that induce a responce from an organism.

Tropism

Plant responce to a stimulus.

Phototropism

A plant's responce to light.

Gravitropism

A plant's responce to gravity.

Auxins

Type of growth chemical in a plant that regulates the amount, type and direction of growth.

Total Magnification

(Eyepiece Power)(Objective Power)

Object Size

(FOV) / (# of cells that fit across the diameter)

Increase or decrease in magnification or FOV

Magnification(1) x FOV(1) = Magnification(1) x FOV(2)

Matter

Mixture and Pure substances are elements of _______.

Mixture

Division of hetrogeneous and homogeneous.

Hetrogeneous

A mechanical mixture.

Hetrogeneous

Visiable (You can see the different elements/compounds inside)

Homogeneous

A solution.

Homogeneous

Not visable (You cannot see the different elements/compounds inside)

Pure substances

Division of elements and compounds.

Element

Cannot be chemically broken down further

Compound

Composed of two or more elements. Can be chemically broken down.

Dalton

All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed.

Dalton

Billard Ball model.

Thomas

Raisin bun model

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