LAN to WAN connectivity is ____.
A(n) ____ is a network of computers and other devices that is confined to a relatively small space, such as one building or even one office.
A personal computer which may or may not be connected to a network is a(n) ____.
A ____ enables resource sharing by other computers on the same network.
____ refer to the capability of a server to share data files, applications (such as word-processing or spreadsheet programs), and disk storage space.
A ____ is usually composed of a group of nodes that use the same communications channel for all their traffic.
The device inside a computer that connects a computer to the network media and allows it to communicate with other computers is known as a(n) ____.
NIC (Network Interface Card)
TRUE or FALSE: Networks are usually only arranged in a ring, bus, or star formation and hybrid combinations of these patterns are not possible.
TRUE or FALSE: Clients on a client/server network share their resources directly with each other.
TRUE or FALSE: Protocols ensure that data are transferred whole, in sequence, and without error from one node on the network to another.
The ____ is the software that runs on a server and enables the server to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions.
network operating system
A(n) ____ is a computer installed with the appropriate software to supply Web pages to many different clients upon demand.
A(n) ____ allows 24 multiplexed voice signals over a single neighborhood line.
FDM (frequency-division multiplex)
The ____ is the main circuit that controls the computer.
The ____ of a network refers to that part of the network to which segments and shared devices connect.
TRUE or FALSE: Resource sharing is controlled by a central computer or authority.
Any device that gives off a spark is also probably emitting ___.
EMI (electro-magnetic interference)
A network that is larger than a LAN and connects clients and servers from multiple buildings is known as a(n) ____.
MAN (metropolitan area network)
In a(n) ____ network, every computer can communicate directly with every other computer.
____ coordinate the storage and transfer of e-mail between users on a network.
____ is an organization composed of more than a thousand representatives from industry and government who together determine standards for the electronics industry and other fields, such as chemical and nuclear engineering, health and safety, and construction.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
____ is a technical advisory group of researchers and technical professionals interested in overseeing the Internet's design and management.
IAB (Internet Architecture Board)
The primary function of protocols in the ____ layer, is to divide data they receive from the Network layer into distinct frames that can then be transmitted by the Physical layer.
The ____ is responsible for Internet growth and management strategy, resolution of technical disputes, and standards oversight.
IAB (Internet Architecture Board)
____ is a connection oriented protocol.
What defines the minimum acceptable performance of a product or service?
A _____ is a unique character string that allows the receiving node to determine if an arriving data unit matches exactly the data unit sent by the source.
Who is responsible for IP addressing and domain name management.
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
____ is a method of identifying segments that belong to the same group of subdivided data.
A business that provides organizations and individuals with access to the Internet and often, other services, such as e-mail and Web hosting is known as a(n) _____.
ISP (internet service provider)
A device that connects network segments and direct data is known as a(n) _____.
The _____ provides developing countries with technical expertise and equipment to advance those nations' technological bases.
ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
The ____ is a specialized United Nations agency that regulates international telecommunications, including radio and TV frequencies, satellite and telephony specifications, networking infrastructure, and tariffs applied to global communications.
ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
Protocols at the ____ layer accept frames from the Data Link layer and generate voltage so as to transmit signals.
TRUE or FALSE: Among the Session layer's functions are establishing and keeping alive the communications link for the duration of the session, keeping the communication secure, synchronizing the dialogue between the two nodes, determining whether communications have been cut off, and, if so, figuring out where to restart transmission, and terminating communications.
Connectivity devices such as hubs and repeaters operate at the ____ layer.
The ____ layer is the lowest, or first, layer of the OSI Model.
TRUE or FALSE: Connectivity devices such as hubs and repeaters operate at the Presentation layer of the OSI Model.
Addresses used to identify computers on the Internet and other TCP/IP-based networks are known as ____ addresses.
IP (internet protocol)
TRUE or FALSE: Every process that occurs during network communications can be associated with a layer of the OSI Model
Through ____ layer protocols, software applications negotiate their formatting, procedural, security, synchronization, and other requirements with the network.
___ addresses contain two parts: a Block ID and a Device ID.
The Application layer separates data into ____ or discrete amounts of data.
protocol data units
TRUE or FALSE: The primary function of protocols at the session layer is to translate network addresses into their physical counterparts and decide how to route data from the sender to the receiver.
The ____ is a trade organization composed of representatives from electronics manufacturing firms across the United States.
EIA (Electronic Industries Alliance)
The top, or seventh, layer of the OSI Model is the ____ layer
The process of gauging the appropriate rate of transmission based on how fast the recipient can accept data is known as _____.
TRUE or FALSE: Addressing is a system for assigning unique identification numbers to devices on a network.
An anonymous login may be used with _______ .
____ is a Network layer protocol that obtains the MAC (physical) address of a host, or node, and then creates a database that maps the MAC address to the host's IP (logical) address.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
____ provides information about how and where data should be delivered, including the data's source and destination addresses.
IP (Internet Protocol)
TRUE or FALSE: Routers use DHCP to determine which nodes belong to a certain multicast group and to transmit data to all nodes in that group.
____ are created when a client makes an ARP request that cannot be satisfied by data already in the ARP table.
Dynamic ARP table entries
____ is a transmission method that allows one node to send data to a defined group of nodes.
____ is the process of subdividing a network segment.
TRUE or FALSE: An IP whose first octet is in the range of 128-191 belongs to a Class C network.
FALSE, it belongs to a Class B network
____ is an automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on a network.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
In the context of TCP/IP, a packet is also known as a(n) ____.
TRUE or FALSE: Static IP addressing can easily result in the duplication of address assignments.
What defines the standards for communication between network devices?
TRUE or FALSE: UDP (User Datagram Protocol) belongs to the Transport layer of the OSI.
____ is a Network layer protocol that reports on the success or failure of data delivery.
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)
TRUE or FALSE: A device without an IP address, can get one with ARP.
The IP address 127.0.0.1 is called a(n) ____.
To traverse more than one LAN segment and more than one type of network through a router.
Process of subdividing a single class of networks into multiple, smaller logical networks, or segments.
An address that represents a single interface on a device.
The most common way of expressing IP addresses.
Dotted decimal notation
The database of Internet IP addresses and their associated names.
Used to synchronize the clocks of computers on a network.
NTP (Network Time Protocol)
A collection of protocols designed by the IETF to simplify the setup of nodes on a TCP/IP network.
Group of computers that belongs to the same organization and has part of their IP addresses in common.
Protocols that can span more than one LAN.
____ operates at the Transport layer of the OSI Model and provides reliable data delivery services.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
____ is a terminal emulation protocol to log on to remote hosts using the TCP/IP protocol suite.
ICMP services are used by ______ to send echo requests.
PING (Packet INternet Groper)
In classful addressing, the network information portion of an IP address (the network ID) is limited to the first ____ bits in a Class A address.
Together, the additional bits used for subnet information plus the existing network ID are known as the ____.
extended network prefix
The utility that allows you to query the DNS registration database and obtain information about a domain is called ____.
The ____ utility performs the same TCP/IP configuration and management as the ipconfig utility, but applies to UNIX and Linux OS's.
A subnet created by moving the subnet boundary to the left is known as a(n) ____.
The formula for determining how to modify a default subnet mask is ____.
2^n - 2 = Y
The ____ utility uses ICMP to trace the path from one networked node to another, identifying all intermediate hops between the two nodes.
A(n) ____ indicates where network information is located in an IP address.
On networks that run NetBIOS over TCP/IP, the ____ utility can provide information about NetBIOS statistics and resolve NetBIOS names to their IP addresses.
The ____ utility allows you to query the DNS database from any computer on the network and find the host name of a device by specifying its IP address, or vice versa.
____ are a combination of software and hardware that enable two different network segments to exchange data.
TRUE or FALSE: When a router is used as a gateway, it must maintain routing tables as well.
A _____ consists of four 8-bit octets (or bytes) that can be expressed in either binary or dotted decimal notation.
Octet(s) that represent host information are set to equal all 1s, or in decimal notation 255 are known as _____ .
____ is a mail protocol that is incapable of doing anything more than transporting mail or holding it in a queue.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
_____ takes the form of the network ID followed by a forward slash (/), followed by the number of bits that are used for the extended network prefix.
CIDR (Classless InterDomain Routing) notation
A(n) _____ is usually assigned an IP address that ends with an octet of .1.
_____ is a TCP/IP utility similar to nslookup.
The process of separating a network into multiple logically defined segments, or subnets is known as ______.
_____ identifies each element of a mail message according to content type.
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
A(n) _____ requires two network connections: one that connects to the Internet and one that connects to the LAN.
____ is the protocol responsible for moving messages from one mail server to another over TCP/IP-based networks.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
The netstat ____ command allows you to display the routing table on a given machine.
____ is an Application layer protocol used to retrieve messages from a mail server.
POP (Post Office Protocol)
____ is a command-line utility that provides information about a network adapter's IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.
When working on a UNIX-type of system, you can limit the maximum number of router hops the traceroute command allows by typing the ____ switch.
TRUE or FALSE: The "0" bits in a subnet mask indicate that corresponding bits in an IP address contain network information.
____ is a mail retrieval protocol that was developed as a more sophisticated alternative to POP3.
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)
A form of transmission that allows multiple signals to travel simultaneously over one medium is known as ____.
The distance between corresponding points on a wave's cycle is called its _____.
____ cable consists of color-coded pairs of insulated copper wires, each with a diameter of 0.4 to 0.8 mm.
You must limit the number of ___ on a segment for a clear, strong, and timely signal.
____ signals are composed of pulses of precise, positive voltages and zero voltages.
TRUE or FALSE: A full-duplex channel is like a river.
A(n) ____ is a piece of hardware that enables networks or segments running on different media to interconnect and exchange signals.
Can be twisted at least twelve times per foot.
TRUE or FALSE: Transmission methods using fiber-optic cables achieve faster throughput than those using copper or wireless connections.
A ____ is a distinct communication path between nodes, much as a lane is a distinct transportation path on a freeway.
A panel of data receptors into which horizontal cabling from the workstations is inserted is called a _____ .
The progress of a wave over time in relationship to a fixed point is known as the ____ of the wave.
_____ cable has a 250-MHz rate.
_______ is the nondata information that must accompany data for a signal to be properly routed and interpreted by the network.
Follows the 5-4-3 rule of networking.
_____ are digital signals sent through DC with exclusive use.
_____ causes noise.
EMI (electro-magnetic interference)
_____ divides a channel into multiple intervals of time, or time slots.
TDM (time division multiplex)
The point of division between the telcom service provider and internal network ____.
A wave's ____ is a measure of its strength at any given point in time.
A 568 standard is for __.
A device that regenerates a digital signal is called a(n) ____.
A(n) ____ segment does not contain end nodes.
The loss of a signal's strength as it travels away from its source is known as ____.
The hardware that makes up the enterprise-wide cabling system is known as the ____.
TRUE or FALSE: A pulse of positive voltage represents a 0.
TRUE or FALSE: Seven bits form a byte
When a data transmission involves only one transmitter and one receiver, it is considered a(n) ____ transmission.
____ are connectivity devices that enable a workstation, server, printer, or other node to receive and transmit data over the network media.
TRUE or FALSE: A repeater typically contains multiple data ports into which the patch cables for network nodes are connected.
____ automatically calculates the best path between two nodes and accumulates this information in a routing table.
____ is the routing protocol of Internet backbones and is not used to route between nodes on an autonomous LAN - that is, it is used on border and exterior routers.
The term ____ refers to the most efficient route from one node on a network to another.
A(n) ____ is software that enables an attached device to communicate with the computer's OS.
____ are devices that connect two network segments by analyzing incoming frames and making decisions about where to direct them based on each frame's MAC address.
TRUE or FALSE: Hubs operate at the Network layer of the OSI model.
____ are combinations of networking hardware and software that connect two dissimilar kinds of networks.
Most hubs also contain one port, called a(n) ____, that allows the hub to connect to another hub or other connectivity device.
TRUE or FALSE: If congestion or failures affect the network, a router using dynamic routing can detect the problems and reroute data through a different path.
TRUE or FALSE: One disadvantage to using wireless NICs is that currently they are somewhat more expensive than wire-bound NICs.
A computer's ____ is the circuit, or signaling pathway, used by the motherboard to transmit data to the computer's components, including its memory, processor, hard disk, and NIC.
A routers strength lies in its ____ .
A(n) ____ is a device or connection on a network that,were it to fail, could cause the entire network or portion of the network to stop functioning.
single point of failure
A router with multiple slots that can hold different interface cards or other devices is called a(n) ____.
A(n) ____ hub does nothing.
A computer's motherboard contains ____, or openings with multiple electrical contacts, that allow devices such as NICs, modems, or sound cards to connect to the computer's expanded bus.
The ____ indicates, in hexadecimal notation, the area of memory that the NIC and CPU use for exchanging, or buffering, data.
To determine the best path, routers communicate with each other through ____.
All of a segments traffic is transmitted to all nodes in the manner of a ____ logical topology.
In networking, the term ____ refers to an entire organization, including its local and remote offices, a mixture of computer systems, and a number of departments.
In ____, a connection is established between two network nodes before they begin transmitting data.
Topology that uses a router or switch as the single central connection point for multiple subnetworks is known as:
Refers to the way in which data is transmitted between nodes:
The cabling that connects the hubs, switches, and routers on a network:
An ITU networking standard describing Data Link layer protocols for both network access and signal multiplexing:
Linked series of devices:
Connections between network nodes that, although based on potentially disparate physical links, logically appear to be direct, dedicated links between those nodes:
The access method used in Ethernet:
A component of a network's logical topology that determines how connections are created between nodes:
Cat 5 rated Mbps:
____ meters is the maximum distance between communicating nodes on a 1000Base_T network.
A(n) ____ topology consists of a single cable connecting all nodes on a network without intervening connectivity devices.
____ occurs when two nodes simultaneously check a channel, determine that it is free, and begin to transmit.
In a(n) ____ topology, every node on the network is connected through a central device, such as a hub or switch.
TRUE or FALSE: Access method is a method of controlling how network nodes access the communications channel.
Which of the following is considered a hybrid topology?
A(n) ____ is the layout, or pattern, of the nodes on a network.
____ is the most robust type of network backbone.
TRUE or FALSE: A collapsed backbone provides network administrators with the ability to segregate workgroups and, therefore, manage them more easily.
TRUE or FALSE: Most bus networks use coaxial cable as their physical medium.
Most Ethernet networks are based on the ____ physical topology.
A(n) ____ is the length of time data takes to travel from one point on the segment to another point.
data propagation delay
Which of the following standards specifies a method for supplying electrical power over Ethernet connections?
All workstations participating in delivery makes the ___ topology an active topology.
In a(n) ____ topology, each node is connected to the two nearest nodes so that the entire network forms a circle.
TRUE or FALSE: Bus networks are difficult to troubleshoot because it is a challenge to identify fault locations.