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unicellular

Type of cell bacteria is

prokaryotic

Number of Cells bacteria has

Auto (chemo)/hetero (absorb)

How bacteria gets its food

everywhere

Location of bacteria

3.5-4 billion years ago

When did bacteria first appear

Reproduction and mutation

Why have they lasted?

archaebacteria and eubacteria

The Two Kingdoms

structure

Archaebacteria became a separate kingdom due to its _________.

extremophiles, extreme

Archaebacteria are _____________, they live in _______ environments.

prokaryotic and unicellular

Similarities between archea and eu cells

chemistry/structure, time difference, how they get food, location

Differences in archea and eu cells

Thermoacidophile

lives in hot and acidic places

halophiles

lives in salty places

human, virus

Bacteria cells are smaller than _____ cells and bigger than a _____.

bacilli

Bacteria shaped like a rod

spirochetes

Bacteria shaped like a squiggle

cocci

Bacteria shaped like circles

Plasma membrane

controls what comes in and out

Cell wall

some protection; maintains structure of cell

Capsule

optional; primary protection from antibiotics

ribosome

make proteins

Cytoplasm

everything inside the cell; contains cytosol (liquid that everything floats around in)

Flagella

help swim

pili

help them attach; aids in exchanging plasmids

Plasmids

extra pieces of DNA; can contain genes for resistance, that create capsules

Spore

rare for most bacteria; for protection when bacteria is in an inhospitable environment

gram positive

dark purple results, no capsule, can use antibiotics

gram negative

light pink results, has a capsule, much tougher time finding an antibiotic

binary fission

1. copy DNA
2. split in half

temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, space

Population is limited by... (five things)

conjugation

Using a pili, two bacteria can trade plasmids (trade info)
NOT part of reproduction!

E. coli

helps you digest your food

medicine

First thing bacteria does for us: make ________.

oil

Second thing bacteria does for us: breaks down ___.

oxygen

Third thing bacteria does for us: makes ______.

foundation, food chains

Fourth thing bacteria does for us: provides __________ for many ____ ______.

pathogenic bacteria

bacteria that makes you sick

antibiotics

kill bacteria by preventing reproduction or punching holes in the cell wall

1940's, Fleming

When were antibiotics first mass-produced and who discovered them?

Kirby-Bauer Method

look for the clear zone where no bacteria grow (zone of inhibition)

zone of inhibition

the clear zone where no bacteria grow

resistance

Some bacteria are lucky enough to have a natural mutation that allows them to survive in the presence of an antibiotic, they can pass this mutation to other bacteria either through normal reproduction or through conjugation

superbugs

can resist all antibiotics

bacteria

Only take antibiotics for ________ diseases

extra antibiotics

Dispose of _____ ___________ correctly

correct, time

Take antibiotics for the _______ amount of ____

other people's

Don't take _____ _______ prescription

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