Articulations are commonly known as ___________.
Articulations represent the point at which ___________.
Two or more bones meet.
What is the only bone not connected to another bone?
Two fundamental functions of articulations are?
Secure bones together
Allow the rigid skeleton to be mobile.
How are joints classified?
1. Structurally - based on the type of binding material (fiber or cartilage) and the presence of a joint cavity.
What are the three major classes of joints?
Cartilaginous -Hyaline and Fiberoblast
Synovial - Colagen joint cavity
Funtionally, what are the three major classes of joints?
Synarthroses = immovable - Fibrous joints
Amphiarthroses = slightly movable - Cartilaginous joints
Diarthroses = freely movable - Synovial joints (not always the rule).
Fibrous joints are are joined by what fibrous connective tissue?
Fibrous joints have no ___________.
Fibrous joints ___________ (immovable) but some are slightly moveable.
__________________ are examples of fibrous joints.
Sutures, Syndesmoses, Gomphoses
When Sutures (Fibrous joints) become completely ossified it is called _____________.
The immovable nature of sutures imparts a ___________.
Syndesmoses Fibrous joints are bones that are ____________________ of fibrous connective tissue.
connected by a cord or sheet
Movement is generally prevented in Syndesmoses Fibrous joints. What is the only Syndesmosis in the body moves or gives a little?
Distal tibiofibular joint.
Syndesmoses are fibrous joints in which the bones are connected by a cord or sheet of fibrous connective tissue. What are the Cord and sheet called?
Cord = ligament
Sheet = interosseous membrane
Gomphoses are ______________________.
Joints that attach the teeth to the bony alveoli of the jaw bones.
The fibrous connection of Gomphoses is ____________.
What are the two cartilaginous joints.
Synchondrosese=primary cartilaginous joints
Symphyses=secondary cartilaginous joints
Cartilaginous joints are articulations united by __________.
Cartilage - lacks a joint cavity
Synchondroses (cartilaginous joints are composed of _____________________.
a bar/plate of hyaline cartilage.
Most are synarthrotic (not moveable)
Examples: Epiphyseal plate, 1st sternocostal joint
Symphyses (cartilaginous joints) are articular cartilages fused to a pad/plate of ___________.
Symphyses cartilaginous joints are designed for ______________.
strength and flexibility=amphiarthrotic
The majority of the joints in the body are ___________.
Synovial joints that are diarthrotic (free moving)
Articulating bones are separated by ______________.
Fluid filled joint cavity. They all contain fibrous collagenous fibers and cartilage.
Synovial fluid is ___________________.
Aqueous: contains hyaluronic acid
Synovial fluid in joints bears the weight, _____, _____.
cushions, and reduces friction.
Synovial fluid movement within the joint during articulation and changes in pressure is called ________.
Weeping lubrication; acts to lubricate and nourish the cartilage.
What are other structures that some synovial joints possess?
Fatty pads = act as cushion, hip and knee joints
Menisci=improve the fit between the bones, knee and jaw
Bursae and tendon sheaths act as ____________.
Ball bearings where ligaments, muscles, skin, or tendons overlie and rub against bone.
What are three factors influencing stability of synovial joints?
Articular surfaces, ligaments, muscle tone
What are the range of motion produced by synovial joints?
Nonaxial = no axis, only slipping movements
Uniaxial = movement in one plane
Biaxial = movement in two planes
Multiaxial = movement in all three planes (ball and socket joints)
Three general types of movement
Gliding = Bone surfaces slip over each other
Angular = Change the angle between two bones
Rotation = Turning of a joint around its own long axis (head)
What are the 6 types of synovial joints
1. Plane joints = non axial joints (slide) **** intercarpal and intertarsal
2. Hing joints - unixial joints Concave surface of one bone fits into a cylindrical groove in another bone, elbow, interphalangeal****
3. Pivot joints = uniaxial joints, proximal and distal radioulnar joints
4. Condyloid joints = biaxial joints, metacarpophalangeal, metatarsaophalangeal joints
5. Saddle joints = Biaxial joints, thumb
6. Ball and socket joints = multiaxial joints, glenohumeral and coxal joints
Injuries of joints are ________________.
1. Sprains = reinforcing ligaments become stretched or torn, don't heal rapidly
2. Dislocations = bones forced out of their normal alignment
3. Cartilaginous injuries - take long time to heal
Bursitis is inflammation of _______________.
A bursa. Usually caused by friction or by an injury.
Tendonitis is inflammation of ________________.
A tendon sheath. Usually caused by overuse.
Arthritis is an ______________________.
Inflammation of the joints.
Three types of arthritis are ___________________.
1. Osteoarthritis=wear and tear, controlled by inflammatory drugs and exercise
2. Rheumatoid Arthritis=Autoimmune disease, flares up and subsides, treatment is drugs, immunosuppressants, Exercise does not help.
3. Gouty Arthritis = metabolic disease caused by build up or uric acid in joint cavities. Treated with allopurinol, dietary change,