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Metabolism

all of the chemical reactions in a cell

Anabolic Metabolism

biochemical reactions that synthesize compounds

Catabolism

The breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm and mitochondria.

Catabolism

breakdown of large molecules

anabolic reaction

many monosaccharides bonding, forming glycogen

Monosaccharides join

In dehydration synthesis of a carbohydrate

water molecule is used

When a sucrose molecule is decomposed to yield a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule

lose H2O to form bonds; use H2O to break bonds

Dehydration synthesis reactions _____, whereas hydrolysis reactions _____

They are most active at temperatures about 53 degrees C

is not a characteristic of enzymes

Enzyme

a molecule, usually a protein, that speeds the rate of a biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy

-ase

The name of an enzyme ends in

The basic steps of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction are

substrate and enzyme combine, forming an E-S complex. The reaction occurs, products are released, and the unchanged enzyme is released and recycled

an enzyme and its substrate

interaction between_____ _____ is when part of the enzyme temporarily binds part of the substrate molecule

Negative Feedback

An important mechanism that controls metabolic pathways under physiological conditions

number of enzyme molecules, number of substrate molecules, and efficiency of the enzyme

Three factors that increase the rates of enzyme-controlled reactions

enzymes; copper, iron, and zinc

A cofactor is a necessary part of some ______ and examples are _____.

act as cofactors

Humans require vitamins in their diets because these nutrients

ATP

A molecule that carries energy in a form the cell can use

it provides energy for cellular work when the terminal, high-energy bond is broken

ATP is important to cellular processes because

Energy

is the capacity of matter to change

ATP molecules in living cells

hold energy from the oxidation of fuels in their high-energy phosphate bonds, and the energy is used in various cell processes

uses enzymes to lower the activation energy

Oxidation during cellular respiration differs from burning in that respiration

Cytoplasm

The reactions of anaerobic respiration take place in the

ATP

increases in abundance during cellular respiration

Acetyl Coenzyme A

A molecule that is common to carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways and connects these two pathways metabolically

Glycolysis

A glucose molecule is broken down into two pyruvic acid molecules

carbon dioxide

In the citric acid cycle _______ is released

cellular respiration

energy is released from molecules and is transferred to other molecules

cytoplasm without O2 required; mitochondria with O2 required

Anaerobic respiration occurs in _____, whereas aerobic respiration occurs in ______

Anaerobic respiration

requires oxygen

Glycogen

A molecule that is a storage form of carbohydrate

nitrogenous base - nucleotide - gene - chromosome - genome

structures in order of increasing size

AGTCCGATAAGGGC

If one strand of DNA has the sequence TCAGGCTATTCCCG, then the complementary sequence of the other strand is

interphase

DNA replication occurs during ______ of the cell cycle

DNA replication

during ____ _____ the DNA double helix comes apart where hydrogen bonds join base pairs, and new nucleotides are brought in, forming two double helices

61

How many codons specify the twenty types of amino acids

genetic code

is the correspondence between a DNA nucleotide and a specific amino acid

RNA

is not double stranded

Thymine

nitrogenous base that is part of DNA but not RNA

Uracil

Which of the nitrogenous bases is part of RNA but not DNA

111

A sequence of DNA 333 nucleotides long that is part of a gene encodes ___ amino acids

AUG

DNA transcribed to mRNA always begins with the sequence

Transcription

Copying DNA information into an mRNA molecule

transcription produces RNA and translation produces protein

Transcription and translation differ in that

peptide

bond forms between adjacent amino acids held on a ribosome and bound to tRNAs

Codons

are part of mRNA

any of three "stop" codons are encountered in the mRNA

Synthesis of a protein stops when

UUGCCACGUGGUGCC

A DNA sequence AACGGTGCACCACGG encodes an mRNA of sequence

leu-pro-arg-gly-ala

A DNA sequence AACGGTGCACCACGG encodes a portion of a protein of sequence

Mutation

a change in a DNA sequence in less than 1% of a population that affects anatomy and/or physiology

about 99.9% alike

The genome sequences of different individuals are

A mutation can cause disease if

the DNA sequence changes so that one amino acid is substituted for another in a way that affects the encoded protein's functioning

mutations, SNPs, and changes in copy number

Three types of genetic changes are

adenine, ribose, and three phosphates

An ATP molecule consists of

True

The electron transport chain is a series of enzyme complexes that pass electrons, releasing energy that is used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP on the inner mitochondrial membrane

genome

All of the genetic information in a cell

gene

The portion of a DNA molecule that contains the genetic information for making a protein

GCGAAUGCUAAC

A DNA sequence of CGCTTACGATTG would be transcribed into an RNA sequence of

3

types of RNA participate in protein synthesis

anticodon

The part of the tRNA that binds mRNA

Glycolysis

Anaerobic and aerobic respiration begin with _______, in which glucose is broken down

substrate

The molecule that an enzyme affects is its _________.

purines pyrimidines

Adenine and guanine are ________ and cytosine and thymine are ______

Substrate

The substances acted upon by an enzyme

dehydration synthesis

the process involves ____ when amino acids are bonded to form proteins

addition of water

What does not denature an enzyme

2

What is the net ATP production in glycolysis

Glycolysis

The anaerobic phase of cellular respiration

lactic acid

During anaerobic conditions, when low oxygen levels may occur, glucose is converted to what stable end product to provide ATP energy

oxidative phosphorylation

The formation of ATP involving the loss of hydrogen atoms and the bonding of phosphate to ADP

RNA contains ribose instead of deoxyribose sugar

What is a difference between RNA and DNA molecules

nucleus ribosomes

mRNA carries information from the ___ to the____

t RNA

carry amino acids to the ribosomes

Nucleus

Where does transcription occur

Ribosomes

Where does translation occur

Transfer rna

During the process of protein synthesis, amino acids are positioned in proper sequence by molecules of

Codon

a series of 3 nucleic acid bases contained on mRNA

Anticodon

a series of 3 nucleic acids bases on the tRNA

Transcription

the process that synthesizes mRNA from DNA using a section called a gene

Hydrogen bonds

Bonds between the complementary base pairs in DNA

Helicase

enzyme that unzips and unwinds the DNA molecule

True

The leading strand is replicated continuously, while the lagging strand is replicated discontinuously

Translation

is the synthesis of proteins from mRNA

Pyruvate

In glycolysis, glucose is converted to

61

the number of codons that specify the 20 types of animo acids

Amylase

What is an example of an enzyme

Oxygen

During aerobic respiration, the last carrier protein transfers a pair of electrons to

hydrogen

Electrons enter the ETC when NADH transfers them there along with protons in the form of

lactic acid

Under anaerobic conditions, the end product of glycolysis is converted to

RNA polymerase

the enzyme that begins transcription

2 ATP, 4 NADH, 2 FADH2

What do 2 circuits of Krebs cycle produce

UAC

If DNA has a sequence of bases (ATG), what would the mRNA sequence be

auc

If DNA has a sequence of bases (TAG), what would the tRNA sequence be

Anaerobic respiration

breaks down glucose into 2 pyruvic acid molecules, occurs in the absence of oxygen, releases energy, transfers energy to ATP molecules

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