Psychology-Ch. 6 Memory Storage

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Memory Storage

Storage

encompasses how information is retained over time and how it is represented in memory.

Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin

formulated an early popular theory of memory that acknowledged the varying life span of memories

Atkinson-Shiffrin theory

states that memory storage involves three separate systems.

Sensory memory, Short-term memory, Long-term memory

The 3 separate systems of memory storage in the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory

Sensory memory

WHICH SYSTEM OF MEMORY STORAGE ACCORDING TO THE Atkinson-Shiffrin theory :time frames of a fraction of a second to several seconds

Short-term memory

WHICH SYSTEM OF MEMORY STORAGE ACCORDING TO THE Atkinson-Shiffrin theory :time frames up to 30 seconds

Long-term memory

WHICH SYSTEM OF MEMORY STORAGE ACCORDING TO THE Atkinson-Shiffrin theory :time frames up to a lifetime

sensory memory; attention; short-term memory; rehearsed; long-term memory; retrieved

ATKINSON-SHIFFRIN THEORY: Sensory input goes into _____. Through the process of _____, information moves into ______, where it remains for 30 seconds or less unless it is ____. When the information goes into _____storage, it can be _____over a lifetime.

Sensory Memory

holds information from the world in its original sensory form for only an instant, not much longer than the brief time it is exposed to the visual, auditory, and other senses.

Sensory Memory

is very rich and detailed, but we lose the information in it quickly unless we use certain strategies that transfer it into shortterm or long-term memory.

Sensory Memory

retains information from your senses, including a large portion of what you think you ignore. However, it does not retain the information very long.

Echoic memory

refers to auditory sensory memory, which is retained for up to several seconds.

Iconic memory

refers to visual sensory memory, which is retained only for about ¼ of a second

Visual sensory memory; iconic memory

_______is responsible for our ability to "write" in the air using a sparkler on the Fourth of July—the residual _______ is what makes a moving point of light appear to be a line.

Iconic memory

The first scientific research on sensory memory focused on....

short-term memory

some information, especially that to which we pay attention, proceeds into .....

short-term memory

is a limited-capacity memory system in which information is usually retained for only as long as 30 seconds unless we use strategies to retain it longer.

short-term memory

Compared with sensory memory, which type of memory is limited in capacity, but it can store information for a longer time?

George Miller

examined the limited capacity of short-term memory in the classic paper "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two." HE pointed out that on many tasks individuals are limited in how much information they can keep track of without external aids

chunking and rehearsal

Two ways to improve short-term memory are....

Chunking

involves grouping or "packing" information that exceeds the 7 ± 2 memory span into higher-order units that can be remembered as single units.

Chunking

works by making large amounts of information more manageable

rehearsal

the conscious repetition of information

rehearsal

Information stored in short-term memory lasts half a minute or less without rehearsal. However, if______ is not interrupted, information can be retained indefinitely.

Rehearsal

is often verbal, giving the impression of an inner voice, but it can also be visual or spatial, giving the impression of a private inner eye

Rehearsal

works best when we must briefly remember a list of numbers or items such as entrées from a dinner menu

rehearsal

A main reason_____ does not work well for retaining information over the long term is that it often involves just mechanically repeating information, without imparting meaning to it.

Alan Baddeley

An alternative approach to explaining short-term memory comes from British psychologist.......

Alan Baddeley

proposed the concept of working memory

working memory

a three-part system that allows us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks.

working memory

is a kind of mental workbench on which the brain manipulates and assembles information to help us understand, make decisions, and solve problems.

the phonological loop, visuospatial working memory, and the central executive.

In Baddeley's working memory model, working memory consists of three main components......

The phonological loop and visuospatial working memory

In Baddeley's working memory model: Which components serve as assistants, helping the central executive do its work? ALL OF WHICH HAVE LIMITED CAPACITY

phonological loop; visuospatial working memory

In Baddeley's working memory model: Input from sensory memory goes to the ____, where information about speech is stored and rehearsal takes place, and to _______, where visual and spatial information, including imagery, is stored.

Working memory

is a limited capacity system, and information is stored there for only a brief time.

Working memory

interacts with long-term memory, drawing information from long-term memory and transmitting information to long-term memory for longer storage.

phonological loop

In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT specialized to briefly store speech-based information about the sounds of language.

phonological loop

In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT contains two separate components: an acoustic code (the sounds we heard), which decays in a few seconds, and rehearsal, which allows us to repeat the words in the phonological store.

Visuospatial working memory

In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT stores visual and spatial information, including visual imagery.

central executive

In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT integrates information not only from the phonological loop and visuospatial working memory but also from long-term memory.

central executive

In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT In Baddeley's view, the _____plays important roles in attention, planning, and organizing.

central executive

In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT acts like a supervisor who monitors which information deserves our attention and which we should ignore.

central executive

In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT It selects which strategies to use to process information and solve problems.

Long-term memory

is a relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time.

explicit memory and implicit memory

Long-term memory is complex and can be divided into which 2 substructures?

episodic and semantic memory

EXPLICIT MEMORY, A SUBSTRUCTURE OF LONG-TERM MEMORY CAN BE FURTHER DIVIDED INTO WHICH 2 SUBDIVISIONS......

procedural memory, classical conditioning, and priming.

IMPLICIT MEMORY, A SUBSTRUCTURE OF LONG-TERM MEMORY CAN BE FURTHER DIVIDED INTO WHICH 3 SUBDIVISIONS......

explicit memory

A SUBSTRUCTURE OF LONG-TERM MEMORY THAT has to do with remembering who, what, where, when, and why

implicit memory

SUBSTRUCTURE OF LONG-TERM MEMORY THAT has to do with remembering how

Explicit Memory

declarative memory

Explicit Memory

is the conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts and events and, at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated

Explicit Memory

recounting the events in a movie you have seen and recalling which politicians are in the president's cabinet. EXAMPLE OF WHICH TYPE OF MEMORY?

Bahrick

calls information that is retained for such a long time "permastore" content.

Permastore memory

represents that portion of original learning that appears destined to be with the person virtually forever, even without rehearsal.

Endel Tulving

Canadian cognitive psychologist WHO has been the foremost advocate of distinguishing between two subtypes of explicit memory

Episodic memory

is the retention of information about the where, when, and what of life's happenings—basically, how we remember life's episodes.

Episodic memory

Subdivision of explicit memory that is autobiographical.

Episodic memory

the details of where you were when your younger brother or sister was born, what happened on your first date, and what you ate for breakfast this morning. EXAMPLE OF?

Semantic memory

is a person's knowledge about the world.

Semantic memory

It includes your areas of expertise, general knowledge of the sort you are learning in school, and everyday knowledge about the meanings of words, famous individuals, important places, and common things.

Semantic memory

is involved in a person's knowledge of chess, of geometry, and of who the Dalai Lama, Barack Obama, and Kate Winslet are.

Semantic memory

it appears to be independent of an individual's personal identity with the past.

Semantic memory

You can access a fact—such as the detail that Lima is the capital of Peru—and not have the foggiest notion of when and where you learned it. THIS IS EXAMPLE OF?

amnesia (memory loss).

The difference between episodic and semantic memory is demonstrated in certain cases of .....

episodic; semantic

A person with amnesia might forget entirely who she is—her name, family, career, and all other vital information about herself—yet still be able to talk, know what words mean, and have general knowledge about the world, such as what day it is or who currently holds the office of U.S. president. In such cases, _____memory is impaired, but ____ memory is functioning.

Tulving

argues that semantic and episodic systems often work together in forming new memories. In such cases, the memory that ultimately forms might consist of an autobiographical episode and semantic information.

implicit memory

is memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without a conscious recollection of that experience.

implicit memory

comes into play in the skills of playing tennis and snowboarding, as well as in the physical act of text messaging.

implicit memory

the repetition in your mind of a song you heard playing in the supermarket, even though you did not notice that song playing. EXAMPLE OF?

procedural memory, classical conditioning, and priming

Three subsystems of implicit memory are.......

aware of; influence behavior

procedural memory, classical conditioning, and priming refer to memories that you are not _________ but that _________

Procedural memory

is a type of implicit memory process that involves memory for skills.

Procedural memory

you type a paper, you are not conscious of where the keys are for the various letters, but your well-learned, nonconscious skill of typing allows you to hit the right keys. EXAMPLE OF?

Procedural memory

once you have learned to drive a car, you remember how to go about it: You do not have to remember consciously how to drive the car as you put the key in the ignition, turn the steering wheel, depress the gas pedal, and step on the brake pedal. EXAMPLE OF?

classical conditioning

type of implicit memory THAT involves the automatic learning of associations between stimuli, so that one comes to evoke the same response as the other.

classical conditioning

associations such as this involve nonconscious, implicit memory. So without realizing it, you might start to like the person who sits next to you in your favorite class, because she is around while you are feeling good.

priming

is the activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster

priming

occurs when something in the environment evokes a response in memory—such as the activation of a particular concept.

priming

_________-a term or concept makes it more available in memory

John Bargh and other social psychologists

have demonstrated that priming can have a surprising influence on social behavior

priming

can spur goal-directed behavior.

priming, SPECIFICALLY HOW IT can spur goal-directed behavior.

Bargh and colleagues (2001) asked students to perform a word-find puzzle. Embedded in the puzzle were either neutral words (shampoo, robin) or achievement-related words (compete, win, achieve). Participants who were exposed to the achievement-related words did better on a later puzzle task, finding 26 words in other puzzles, while those with the neutral primes found only 21.5 EXAMPLE OF?

organized

Refers to how Memories are not haphazardly stored but instead are carefully sorted.

organize

Researchers have found that if people are encouraged to _______material simply, their memories of the material improve even if they receive no warning that their memories will be tested

Schemas

is a preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information.

Schemas

_______from prior encounters with the environment influence the way we handle information—how we encode it, the inferences we make about it, and how we retrieve it

schemas

can also be at work when we recall information.

schemas

holds that long-term memory is not very exact. We seldom find precisely the memory that we want, or at least not all of what we want; hence, we have to reconstruct the rest.

schemas

Our _______support the reconstruction process, helping us fill in gaps between our fragmented memories.

script

is a schema for an event

script

often have information about physical features, people, and typical occurrences.

script

This kind of information is helpful when people need to figure out what is happening around them.

script

if you are enjoying your after-dinner coffee in an upscale restaurant and a man in a tuxedo comes over and puts a piece of paper on the table, your _____ tells you that the man probably is a waiter who has just given you the check.

script

help to organize our storage of memories about events.

Connectionism, or parallel distributed processing (PDP)

is the theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons, several of which may work together to process a single memory

connectionist

In the ____ view, memories are not large knowledge structures (as in schema theories). Instead, memories are more like electrical impulses, organized only to the extent that neurons, the connections among them, and their activity are organized.

Connectionism, or parallel distributed processing (PDP)

Any piece of knowledge—such as your dog's name—is embedded in the strengths of hundreds or thousands of connections among neurons and is not limited to a single location. EXAMPLE OF?

connectionist

Because of THE simple reactions OF NEURAL ACTIVITY, the ______view argues that changes in the strength of synaptic connections are the fundamental bases of memory

connectionist

From the ____network perspective, memories are organized sets of neurons that are routinely activated together.

Connectionist approaches

help to explain how priming a concept (rudeness) can influence behavior (interrupting someone).

Connectionist

insights from this WHICH view support brain research undertaken to determine where memories are stored in the brain

Karl Lashley

spent a lifetime looking for a location in the brain in which memories are stored. He trained rats to discover the correct pathway in a maze and then cut out various portions of the animals' brains and retested their memory of the maze pathway.

memories are not stored in a specific location in the brain.

Experiments with thousands of rats showed that the loss of various cortical areas did not affect rats' ability to remember the pathway, leading Lashley to conclude that......

Donald Hebb

Canadian psychologist who suggested that assemblies of cells, distributed over large areas of the cerebral cortex, work together to represent information, just as the connectionist network perspective would predict.

specific sets or circuits of neurons

Today many neuroscientists believe that memory is located in _______ or _________

written

Researchers also believe that brain chemicals may be the ink with which memories are .......

memory.

neurotransmitters are the chemicals that allow neurons to communicate across the synapse. These chemicals play a crucial role in forging the connections that represent .......

long-term potentiation

explains how memory functions at the neuron level.

long-term potentiation

this concept states that if two neurons are activated at the same time, the connection between them—and thus the memory—may be strengthened

long-term potentiation

has been demonstrated experimentally by administering a drug that increases the flow of information from one neuron to another across the synapse, raising the possibility of someday improving memory through drugs that increase neural connections

Explicit memory

Neuroscientists have found that the hippocampus, the temporal lobes in the cerebral cortex, and other areas of the limbic system play a role in......

explicit memory,

In many aspects of ______information is transmitted from the hippocampus to the frontal lobes, which are involved in both retrospective (remembering things from the past) and prospective (remembering things that you need to do in the future) memory

encode; retrieve

The left frontal lobe is especially active when we ____ new information into memory; the right frontal lobe is more active when we subsequently________ it

implicit memory

he cerebellum (the structure at the back and toward the bottom of the brain) is active in the_______ required to perform skills

priming

Various areas of the cerebral cortex, such as the temporal lobes and hippocampus, function in.......

MRI scans

Neuroscientists studying memory have benefited greatly from the use of ________, which allow the tracking of neural activity during cognitive tasks

Storage

determines how information is represented in memory and how long it is retained.

Atkinson-Shiffrin theory

states that there are three systems in memory storage.

sensory memory

The Atkinson-Shiffrin theory states that there are three systems in memory storage. The first system is ________, wherein information is stored for up to several seconds.

short-term memory

The Atkinson-Shiffrin theory states that there are three systems in memory storage. In the second system, ______, information is stored for up to 30 seconds.

long-term memory

The Atkinson-Shiffrin theory states that there are three systems in memory storage.The third system is ______, in which information is stored for up to a lifetime.

sensory memory

holds information that is taken in from environmental stimuli. It is held here for a period from a fraction of a second to several seconds.

sensory memory

We process more information in ______ than we consciously notice.

sensory memory

Information in ______is picked up by a person's senses.

Echoic memory

is auditory sensory memory, held for several seconds.

Iconic memory

is visual sensory memory, held for about one-fourth of a second.

George Sperling

conducted the first type of research on iconic memory.

iconic memory

George Sperling found that people could remember seeing as many as nine letters he had flashed on a screen for about 1/20 of a second, but this______ was too brief for people to be able to transfer all nine letters to short-term memory, where they could be named, so they could only recall about half of them.

short-term memory

Some of the information to which a person attends is transfered from sensory memory into.....

short-term memory

Information is held in_______ for about 30 seconds

memory span.

Most people can hold about seven, plus or minus two, bits of information in short-term memory. This is known as .......

Chunking and rehearsal

two ways to improve short-term memory.

Chunking

grouping amounts of information larger than the seven, plus or minus two, bits into higher-order, single units.

Rehearsal

involves repeating information over and over again as a way to remember it.

rehearsal

The information retained by ________can be held indefinitely unless there is some sort of interruption.

rehearsal

__________works best when a person must remember the information only briefly and not for long-term retention, mainly because it does not involve deep processing.

Working memory

proposed by Alan Baddeley (2006, 2007) is a three-part system that temporarily holds information while a person is working on a cognitive task.

Working memory

Unlike long-term memory, ______ and its components have limited capacity.

phonological loop

The first part in working memory is the ________, which stores speech-based information about the sounds of language. It includes an acoustic code and rehearsal.

visuospatial working memory

The second part in working memory is the called ____, stores visual and spatial information, including visual imagery.

phonological loop and visuospatial working memory

in working memory the function of _______ and _______ function independently and can be used concurrently for separate tasks.

central executive

The third part in working memory is the _____, combines information from the phonological loop and visuospatial working memory. It also integrates information from long-term memory.

working memory

he concept of _____ can help us understand how brain damage affects cognitive skills. Some people have good working memory but poor long-term memory, while others have good long-term memory but problems with working memory.

Alzheimers

Deficits in working memory can be found in patients with _______disease.

central executive

Baddeley feels that patients who have deficits in working memory can be traced to the _____, which coordinates different mental activities. This is a function with which Alzheimers patients have great difficulty.

Long-term memory

is a relatively permanent memory storage base.

long-term memory storage

There is a virtually unlimited amount of space in the human brain for......

Explicit Memory

also known as declarative memory

Explicit Memory

is a type of memory for specific facts or events and information that can be verbally communicated.

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