encompasses how information is retained over time and how it is represented in memory.
Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin
formulated an early popular theory of memory that acknowledged the varying life span of memories
states that memory storage involves three separate systems.
Sensory memory, Short-term memory, Long-term memory
The 3 separate systems of memory storage in the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory
WHICH SYSTEM OF MEMORY STORAGE ACCORDING TO THE Atkinson-Shiffrin theory :time frames of a fraction of a second to several seconds
WHICH SYSTEM OF MEMORY STORAGE ACCORDING TO THE Atkinson-Shiffrin theory :time frames up to 30 seconds
WHICH SYSTEM OF MEMORY STORAGE ACCORDING TO THE Atkinson-Shiffrin theory :time frames up to a lifetime
sensory memory; attention; short-term memory; rehearsed; long-term memory; retrieved
ATKINSON-SHIFFRIN THEORY: Sensory input goes into _____. Through the process of _____, information moves into ______, where it remains for 30 seconds or less unless it is ____. When the information goes into _____storage, it can be _____over a lifetime.
holds information from the world in its original sensory form for only an instant, not much longer than the brief time it is exposed to the visual, auditory, and other senses.
is very rich and detailed, but we lose the information in it quickly unless we use certain strategies that transfer it into shortterm or long-term memory.
retains information from your senses, including a large portion of what you think you ignore. However, it does not retain the information very long.
refers to auditory sensory memory, which is retained for up to several seconds.
refers to visual sensory memory, which is retained only for about ¼ of a second
Visual sensory memory; iconic memory
_______is responsible for our ability to "write" in the air using a sparkler on the Fourth of July—the residual _______ is what makes a moving point of light appear to be a line.
The first scientific research on sensory memory focused on....
some information, especially that to which we pay attention, proceeds into .....
is a limited-capacity memory system in which information is usually retained for only as long as 30 seconds unless we use strategies to retain it longer.
Compared with sensory memory, which type of memory is limited in capacity, but it can store information for a longer time?
examined the limited capacity of short-term memory in the classic paper "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two." HE pointed out that on many tasks individuals are limited in how much information they can keep track of without external aids
chunking and rehearsal
Two ways to improve short-term memory are....
involves grouping or "packing" information that exceeds the 7 ± 2 memory span into higher-order units that can be remembered as single units.
works by making large amounts of information more manageable
the conscious repetition of information
Information stored in short-term memory lasts half a minute or less without rehearsal. However, if______ is not interrupted, information can be retained indefinitely.
is often verbal, giving the impression of an inner voice, but it can also be visual or spatial, giving the impression of a private inner eye
works best when we must briefly remember a list of numbers or items such as entrées from a dinner menu
A main reason_____ does not work well for retaining information over the long term is that it often involves just mechanically repeating information, without imparting meaning to it.
An alternative approach to explaining short-term memory comes from British psychologist.......
proposed the concept of working memory
a three-part system that allows us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks.
is a kind of mental workbench on which the brain manipulates and assembles information to help us understand, make decisions, and solve problems.
the phonological loop, visuospatial working memory, and the central executive.
In Baddeley's working memory model, working memory consists of three main components......
The phonological loop and visuospatial working memory
In Baddeley's working memory model: Which components serve as assistants, helping the central executive do its work? ALL OF WHICH HAVE LIMITED CAPACITY
phonological loop; visuospatial working memory
In Baddeley's working memory model: Input from sensory memory goes to the ____, where information about speech is stored and rehearsal takes place, and to _______, where visual and spatial information, including imagery, is stored.
is a limited capacity system, and information is stored there for only a brief time.
interacts with long-term memory, drawing information from long-term memory and transmitting information to long-term memory for longer storage.
In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT specialized to briefly store speech-based information about the sounds of language.
In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT contains two separate components: an acoustic code (the sounds we heard), which decays in a few seconds, and rehearsal, which allows us to repeat the words in the phonological store.
Visuospatial working memory
In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT stores visual and spatial information, including visual imagery.
In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT integrates information not only from the phonological loop and visuospatial working memory but also from long-term memory.
In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT In Baddeley's view, the _____plays important roles in attention, planning, and organizing.
In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT acts like a supervisor who monitors which information deserves our attention and which we should ignore.
In Baddeley's working memory model: THIS COMPONENT It selects which strategies to use to process information and solve problems.
is a relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time.
explicit memory and implicit memory
Long-term memory is complex and can be divided into which 2 substructures?
episodic and semantic memory
EXPLICIT MEMORY, A SUBSTRUCTURE OF LONG-TERM MEMORY CAN BE FURTHER DIVIDED INTO WHICH 2 SUBDIVISIONS......
procedural memory, classical conditioning, and priming.
IMPLICIT MEMORY, A SUBSTRUCTURE OF LONG-TERM MEMORY CAN BE FURTHER DIVIDED INTO WHICH 3 SUBDIVISIONS......
A SUBSTRUCTURE OF LONG-TERM MEMORY THAT has to do with remembering who, what, where, when, and why
SUBSTRUCTURE OF LONG-TERM MEMORY THAT has to do with remembering how
is the conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts and events and, at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated
recounting the events in a movie you have seen and recalling which politicians are in the president's cabinet. EXAMPLE OF WHICH TYPE OF MEMORY?
calls information that is retained for such a long time "permastore" content.
represents that portion of original learning that appears destined to be with the person virtually forever, even without rehearsal.
Canadian cognitive psychologist WHO has been the foremost advocate of distinguishing between two subtypes of explicit memory
is the retention of information about the where, when, and what of life's happenings—basically, how we remember life's episodes.
Subdivision of explicit memory that is autobiographical.
the details of where you were when your younger brother or sister was born, what happened on your first date, and what you ate for breakfast this morning. EXAMPLE OF?
is a person's knowledge about the world.
It includes your areas of expertise, general knowledge of the sort you are learning in school, and everyday knowledge about the meanings of words, famous individuals, important places, and common things.
is involved in a person's knowledge of chess, of geometry, and of who the Dalai Lama, Barack Obama, and Kate Winslet are.
it appears to be independent of an individual's personal identity with the past.
You can access a fact—such as the detail that Lima is the capital of Peru—and not have the foggiest notion of when and where you learned it. THIS IS EXAMPLE OF?
amnesia (memory loss).
The difference between episodic and semantic memory is demonstrated in certain cases of .....
A person with amnesia might forget entirely who she is—her name, family, career, and all other vital information about herself—yet still be able to talk, know what words mean, and have general knowledge about the world, such as what day it is or who currently holds the office of U.S. president. In such cases, _____memory is impaired, but ____ memory is functioning.
argues that semantic and episodic systems often work together in forming new memories. In such cases, the memory that ultimately forms might consist of an autobiographical episode and semantic information.
is memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without a conscious recollection of that experience.
comes into play in the skills of playing tennis and snowboarding, as well as in the physical act of text messaging.
the repetition in your mind of a song you heard playing in the supermarket, even though you did not notice that song playing. EXAMPLE OF?
procedural memory, classical conditioning, and priming
Three subsystems of implicit memory are.......
aware of; influence behavior
procedural memory, classical conditioning, and priming refer to memories that you are not _________ but that _________
is a type of implicit memory process that involves memory for skills.
you type a paper, you are not conscious of where the keys are for the various letters, but your well-learned, nonconscious skill of typing allows you to hit the right keys. EXAMPLE OF?
once you have learned to drive a car, you remember how to go about it: You do not have to remember consciously how to drive the car as you put the key in the ignition, turn the steering wheel, depress the gas pedal, and step on the brake pedal. EXAMPLE OF?
type of implicit memory THAT involves the automatic learning of associations between stimuli, so that one comes to evoke the same response as the other.
associations such as this involve nonconscious, implicit memory. So without realizing it, you might start to like the person who sits next to you in your favorite class, because she is around while you are feeling good.
is the activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster
occurs when something in the environment evokes a response in memory—such as the activation of a particular concept.
_________-a term or concept makes it more available in memory
John Bargh and other social psychologists
have demonstrated that priming can have a surprising influence on social behavior
can spur goal-directed behavior.
priming, SPECIFICALLY HOW IT can spur goal-directed behavior.
Bargh and colleagues (2001) asked students to perform a word-find puzzle. Embedded in the puzzle were either neutral words (shampoo, robin) or achievement-related words (compete, win, achieve). Participants who were exposed to the achievement-related words did better on a later puzzle task, finding 26 words in other puzzles, while those with the neutral primes found only 21.5 EXAMPLE OF?
Refers to how Memories are not haphazardly stored but instead are carefully sorted.
Researchers have found that if people are encouraged to _______material simply, their memories of the material improve even if they receive no warning that their memories will be tested
is a preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information.
_______from prior encounters with the environment influence the way we handle information—how we encode it, the inferences we make about it, and how we retrieve it
can also be at work when we recall information.
holds that long-term memory is not very exact. We seldom find precisely the memory that we want, or at least not all of what we want; hence, we have to reconstruct the rest.
Our _______support the reconstruction process, helping us fill in gaps between our fragmented memories.
is a schema for an event
often have information about physical features, people, and typical occurrences.
This kind of information is helpful when people need to figure out what is happening around them.
if you are enjoying your after-dinner coffee in an upscale restaurant and a man in a tuxedo comes over and puts a piece of paper on the table, your _____ tells you that the man probably is a waiter who has just given you the check.
help to organize our storage of memories about events.
Connectionism, or parallel distributed processing (PDP)
is the theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons, several of which may work together to process a single memory
In the ____ view, memories are not large knowledge structures (as in schema theories). Instead, memories are more like electrical impulses, organized only to the extent that neurons, the connections among them, and their activity are organized.
Connectionism, or parallel distributed processing (PDP)
Any piece of knowledge—such as your dog's name—is embedded in the strengths of hundreds or thousands of connections among neurons and is not limited to a single location. EXAMPLE OF?
Because of THE simple reactions OF NEURAL ACTIVITY, the ______view argues that changes in the strength of synaptic connections are the fundamental bases of memory
From the ____network perspective, memories are organized sets of neurons that are routinely activated together.
help to explain how priming a concept (rudeness) can influence behavior (interrupting someone).
insights from this WHICH view support brain research undertaken to determine where memories are stored in the brain
spent a lifetime looking for a location in the brain in which memories are stored. He trained rats to discover the correct pathway in a maze and then cut out various portions of the animals' brains and retested their memory of the maze pathway.
memories are not stored in a specific location in the brain.
Experiments with thousands of rats showed that the loss of various cortical areas did not affect rats' ability to remember the pathway, leading Lashley to conclude that......
Canadian psychologist who suggested that assemblies of cells, distributed over large areas of the cerebral cortex, work together to represent information, just as the connectionist network perspective would predict.
specific sets or circuits of neurons
Today many neuroscientists believe that memory is located in _______ or _________
Researchers also believe that brain chemicals may be the ink with which memories are .......
neurotransmitters are the chemicals that allow neurons to communicate across the synapse. These chemicals play a crucial role in forging the connections that represent .......
explains how memory functions at the neuron level.
this concept states that if two neurons are activated at the same time, the connection between them—and thus the memory—may be strengthened
has been demonstrated experimentally by administering a drug that increases the flow of information from one neuron to another across the synapse, raising the possibility of someday improving memory through drugs that increase neural connections
Neuroscientists have found that the hippocampus, the temporal lobes in the cerebral cortex, and other areas of the limbic system play a role in......
In many aspects of ______information is transmitted from the hippocampus to the frontal lobes, which are involved in both retrospective (remembering things from the past) and prospective (remembering things that you need to do in the future) memory
The left frontal lobe is especially active when we ____ new information into memory; the right frontal lobe is more active when we subsequently________ it
he cerebellum (the structure at the back and toward the bottom of the brain) is active in the_______ required to perform skills
Various areas of the cerebral cortex, such as the temporal lobes and hippocampus, function in.......
Neuroscientists studying memory have benefited greatly from the use of ________, which allow the tracking of neural activity during cognitive tasks
determines how information is represented in memory and how long it is retained.
states that there are three systems in memory storage.
The Atkinson-Shiffrin theory states that there are three systems in memory storage. The first system is ________, wherein information is stored for up to several seconds.
The Atkinson-Shiffrin theory states that there are three systems in memory storage. In the second system, ______, information is stored for up to 30 seconds.
The Atkinson-Shiffrin theory states that there are three systems in memory storage.The third system is ______, in which information is stored for up to a lifetime.
holds information that is taken in from environmental stimuli. It is held here for a period from a fraction of a second to several seconds.
We process more information in ______ than we consciously notice.
Information in ______is picked up by a person's senses.
is auditory sensory memory, held for several seconds.
is visual sensory memory, held for about one-fourth of a second.
conducted the first type of research on iconic memory.
George Sperling found that people could remember seeing as many as nine letters he had flashed on a screen for about 1/20 of a second, but this______ was too brief for people to be able to transfer all nine letters to short-term memory, where they could be named, so they could only recall about half of them.
Some of the information to which a person attends is transfered from sensory memory into.....
Information is held in_______ for about 30 seconds
Most people can hold about seven, plus or minus two, bits of information in short-term memory. This is known as .......
Chunking and rehearsal
two ways to improve short-term memory.
grouping amounts of information larger than the seven, plus or minus two, bits into higher-order, single units.
involves repeating information over and over again as a way to remember it.
The information retained by ________can be held indefinitely unless there is some sort of interruption.
__________works best when a person must remember the information only briefly and not for long-term retention, mainly because it does not involve deep processing.
proposed by Alan Baddeley (2006, 2007) is a three-part system that temporarily holds information while a person is working on a cognitive task.
Unlike long-term memory, ______ and its components have limited capacity.
The first part in working memory is the ________, which stores speech-based information about the sounds of language. It includes an acoustic code and rehearsal.
visuospatial working memory
The second part in working memory is the called ____, stores visual and spatial information, including visual imagery.
phonological loop and visuospatial working memory
in working memory the function of _______ and _______ function independently and can be used concurrently for separate tasks.
The third part in working memory is the _____, combines information from the phonological loop and visuospatial working memory. It also integrates information from long-term memory.
he concept of _____ can help us understand how brain damage affects cognitive skills. Some people have good working memory but poor long-term memory, while others have good long-term memory but problems with working memory.
Deficits in working memory can be found in patients with _______disease.
Baddeley feels that patients who have deficits in working memory can be traced to the _____, which coordinates different mental activities. This is a function with which Alzheimers patients have great difficulty.
is a relatively permanent memory storage base.
long-term memory storage
There is a virtually unlimited amount of space in the human brain for......
also known as declarative memory
is a type of memory for specific facts or events and information that can be verbally communicated.
A study by Harry Bahrick found that any information forgotten from________ was forgotten within the first three years after the memory was stored; after that, the forgetting leveled off.
is the key to permanent memory storage.
If information is learned and stored over time, there is a better chance that it will remain in explicit memory indefinitely. EXAMPLE OF?
content is information that is learned and retained. this is called?
is a type of explicit memory. It stores information about where, what, and when information is occurring.
is autobiographical, meaning that it pertains specifically to a given person's life.
is a second type of explicit memory. This type of memory pertains to information about the world. It includes general, everyday, and academic knowledge, but not the personal information of episodic memory.
Many explicit or declarative memories are neither purely___ nor purely _____
argues that episodic and semantic systems often work together in forming new memories.
also known as nondeclarative memory
is a type of memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without conscious memory of the experience.
a person may know how to type on a computer without consciously remembering the past learning process. EXAMPLE OF?
Subsystem of implicit memory which is a memory for skills.
when you first learn how to drive a car, there are many steps involved and you consciously follow each of these steps. However, after you have been driving for a while, you start the car and drive without thinking through all the steps involved. EXAMPLE OF?
subsystem of implicit memory, This type of memory involves making automatic associations between different stimuli.
subsystem of implicit memory, involves taking information that a person has already learned out of storage in order to learn new information.
subsystem of implicit memory, where a person is able to learn the new information faster and better.
occurs when a trigger in the environment evokes a response in the memory.
can stimulate goal-directed behavior
We can remember information or facts better when we _____ them
store the information from general to specific and is termed?
New information can be stored in ______, meaning that information is incorporated into the correct region of memory. There are _______for all sorts of common information.
is a preexisting mental concept that helps us organize and interpret new information.
help us reconstruct inexact long-term memories by filling in the gaps between fragments.
Schemas have ____, which help us figure out what is happening around us and to organize our storage of memories about events.
Connectionism, or parallel distributed processing (PDP)
is based on the theory that memories are stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons. Several of these neuronal connections may work together to form one memory.
discovered that memories are not stored in one specific area of the brain but throughout various parts of the brain.
Researchers today believe that ______ are located in specific sets or circuits of neurons.
says that most memories are probably clustered in groups of about 1,000 neurons.
Researchers have also discovered that when brain chemicals such as__________ are released in sea slugs, they trigger memories. Scientists theorize that this process may occur the same way in humans.
the hippocampus, the temporal lobes in the cerebral cortex, and other parts of the limbic system are all involved in........
The left frontal lobe is more active in ______, while the right frontal lobe is more active in ______.
Older adults begin to use the left frontal lobe in ______as well, which may help them compensate as memory problems develop.
The _____plays a role in emotional memories.
The ________ is involved in the implicit memories required to perform various skills.