Anatomy & Physiology - Chapter 19: BLOOD

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How does blood contribute to homeostasis?

* Transporting Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Nutrients, & Hormones to and from your body's cells
* Helps regulate body pH and temp
* Provides protection against disease through phagocytocis and production of antibodies

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Consists of three components: Blood, the heart & blood vessels

HEMATOLOGY

The branch of science concerned with the study of blood, blood forming tissues and blood disorders

BLOOD

Connective tissue composed of liquid extracellular matrix called blood plasma that disolves and suspends various cells and cell fragments

INTERSTITIAL FLUID

The fluid that bathes body cells and is constantly renewed by blood

Specify the direction of blood movement:

Blood transports O2 from LUNGS and nutrients from GI tract, which diffuse from blood into INTERSITIAL FLUID and then into body cells.

Name 3 Functions of Blood:

1. Transportation - blood transports O2 from lungs to cells of body and CO2 from body cells to lungs for exhalation
2. Regulation - circulating blood helps regulate pH through use of buffers to regulate body temp
3. Protection - blood can clot which protects against excessive loss after injury

T or F: Blood is more viscious than water

True

T or F: The temp of blood is 38 degrees C. 1 degree higher than oral or rectal body temp.

True

T or F: Blood has a slightly alkaline pH ranging from 7.35 to 7.45

True

T or F: When blood has high O2 content, it is bright red and low 02 content, dark red

True

T or F: Blood constitues 8% of total body mass

True

T or F: Several hormones, regulated by negative feedback, endure that blood volume and pressure remain relatively constant

True

Name bloods two components:

1. Blood Plasma
2. Formed Elements

T or F: Blood is a connective tissue that consists of blood plasma (liquid) plus formed elements (red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets)

True

BUFFY COAT

Composed of white blood cells and platelets - layer bw the packed RBCs and plasma blood

T or F: Plasma blood is 55% and Red Blood Cells 45%

True

BLOOD PLASMA

Straw coloured liquid that remains once formed elements are removed from blood
About 91.5% water, 8.5% solutes (7% proteins, 1.5% other)
Plasma Proteins in Blood Plasma:
Albumins: smallest and most numerous blood plasma proteins, produced by liver, transport proteins for steroid hormones and for fatty acids
Globulins - Produced by liver and by plasma cells, which devleop from B lymphocytes, anitbodies help attack vriuses and bacteria, alpha and beta gobulins transport iron, lipids, and fat-soluble vitamins
Fibrinogen- produced by liver. plays essential role in blood clotting
Other: electrolytes, nutrients, gases, regulatory substances, waste products

ANTIBODIES

Produced during certain immune responses
Binds specifically to the antigen that stimulated its production and thus disables invading antigen

FORMED ELEMENTS of blood

Include 3 components:

1) RBCs (Red Blood Cells)
2) WBCs (White Blood Cells)
3) Platelets

HEMATOCRIT

The percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBC (average for women is 42, men 47)

POLYCYTHEMIA

The percentage of RBC's is abnormally high (65 or higher) which raises vicosity of blood, which makes it harder for heart to pump

T or F: Most formed elements of blood last only hours, days, or weeks and must be replaced continuously

True

T or F: Negative feedback systems regulate the total # of RBC's and platelets in circulation and their numbers remain steady

True

HEMOPOISESIS

The process by which the formed elements of blood develop. First occurs in yolk sac of embryo and then later in liver, spleen, thymus and lymph nodes of fetus. Red bone marrow becomes primary site of hemopoisesis in last 3 months before birth and continues as the source of blood cells after birth throughout life

RED BONE MARROW

Highly vascularized connective tissue in the spaces b/w trabeculae of spongy bone tissue. Present mostly in bones of axial skeleton, pectoral and pelvic girdles.

PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS

Aka nemocytoblasts - these cells have capacity to develop into many different types of cells. As an individual grows into adulthood, the rate of blood cell formation dereases and Red Bone Marrow in medullary cavity of long bones becomes inactive and is replaced by Yellow Bone Marrow - mostly fat cells

PROGENITOR CELLS

During hemiopoises, some myeloid cells differentiate into progenitor cells. These cells are no longer capable of reproducing themselves and are committed to giving rise to more specific elements of blood. Known as CFUs (Colony Forming Units)

PRECURSOR CELLS

aka blasts
- develop into the actual formed elements of blood

HEMOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTORS

regulate the differentiation and proliferation of particular progenitor cells

ERYHROPOIETIN (EPO)

increases the # of red blood cell precursors, produced primarly in by cells in kidneys
- With renal failure, EPO release slows and RBC production is inadequate

TPO (Thrombopoietin)

Hormone produced by the liver that stimulates the formation of platelets

CYTOKINES

Small glycoproteins that are typically produced by cells such as red bone marrow cells, leukocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells
- Generally act as local hormones
- Stimulate proliferation of progenitor cells in red blood marrow and regulate activities of cells involved in nonspecific defenses and immune responses
- Two important families of cytokines that stimulate white blood cell formation are CSF (Colony Stimulating Factors) and INTERLEUKINS

RED BLOOD CELLS

- Aka erthrocytes. Contain the oxygen carrying protein HEMOGLOBIN, which is a pigment that gives blood its red colour
- Mature red blood cells

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