← WOH Chpts 31-34 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Truman Doctrine First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism. Marshall Plan Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism. NATO North Atlantic Trade Organization; Organization formed in 1949 as a military alliance of western European and North American states against the Soviet Union and its east European allies. Warsaw Pact the name commonly given to the treaty between Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union, which was signed in Poland in 1955 and was officially called 'The Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance'. Although this rather cute title sounds more like the agreement which you and your friend have about sending cards to each other on Valentine's Day, it was actually a military treaty, which bound its signatories to come to the aid of the others, should any one of them be the victim of foreign aggression. Nikita Khrushchev He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, following the death of Joseph Stalin, and Chairman of the Council of Ministers from 1958 to 1964. He was responsible for the De-Stalinization of the USSR, as well as several liberal reforms ranging from agriculture to foreign policy. Cuban Missile Crisis In October 1962, the United States and the Soviet Union came close to nuclear war when President Kennedy insisted that Nikita Khrushchev remove the 42 missiles he had secretly deployed in Cuba. The Soviets eventually did so, nuclear war was averted, and the crisis ended. Mikhail Gorbachev Became the leader of the USSR in 1985. He proposed major reforms and adopted policies of greater openness (glasnostand perestroika) and allowed Soveit-bloc states greater independence. In 1991, there wa an unsuccessful attemtped overthrow of his government. The USSR dissolved in 1991 with Gorbachev's resignation. Glasnost Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union Perestroika Russian term for the political and economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Its literal meaning is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system. Boris Yeltsin president of the Russian Federation from 1991 - 1999, vows to change Russia's socialist command economy into a free market economy and endorsed privatization programs. He led a resistance against coup which led to Gorbachev's return to power. Camp David Accords 1978 - Maryland. The Camp David Accords were the peace accords signed by Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat to finally end the Israeli-Egyptian disputes. The achievement by Carter is considered his greatest achievement in office. Nelson Mandela one of the leaders of the African National Congress who led a struggle to end apartheid and was elected president in 1994 in the first all-race election in South Africa; arrested in early 1960's, 27 years in prison, released by F.W. De Klerk, became first democratic president Appeasement Foreign policy followed by the British government, and later by the French, in their dealings with the-> Axis powers from 1937-39. It was designed to avoid war by giving way to some of their demands and by conceding territory to them, notably the Sudetenland area of Czechoslovakia by the-> Munich Agreement in 1938. Non-Aggression Pact 1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland Final Solution Part of Hitler's "New Order" began in 1941 when he ordered the annihilation of the entire Jewish population of Europe. The Germans created a system to locate, capture, transport, and exterminate. Locarno Pact In 1925 the leaders of Europe signed a number of agreements at Locarno, Switzerland. Germany and France pledged to accept their common border, and Britain and Italy agreed to fight either France or Germany if either one invaded the other. Mao Zedong Leader of the Chinese Communist Party (1927-1976). He led the Communists on the Long March (1934-1935) and rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China (1937-1945). He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life. Hundred Flowers Movement Refers to a period in 1956-1957 when Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong encouraged citizens, particularly intellectuals, to speak out and give their views on how to improve China's government. Mao was shocked by the depth of the criticism of communist rule and cracked down by silencing and punishing the critics with the Anti-Rightist Campaign of 1957. Great Leap Forward economic and social plan used in China from 1958 to 1961 which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern industrial society. Cultural Revolution A comprehensive reform movement in China initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 to eliminate counterrevolutionary elements in the country's institutions and leadership. It was characterized by political zealotry, purges of intellectuals, and social and economic chaos. Red Guards 1966-The youths who led Mao's Cultural Revolution. They wore red arm bands and carried his book. They terrorized Chinese citizens and determined who went to camps. They were mainly university and high school students. They tried to revitalize the revolutionary spirit by attacking local party leaders and teachers. (abolish pre-communism concepts). They wanted to destroy the four olds. Deng Xiaoping Chinese Communist leader. Ruled from 1978 until 1997 Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong. He was the leader of the Central Committee Secretariat. He came to power after Mao stepped away following GLF. He rolled back Mao's reforms but kept China's communistic views in tact. IMF The International Monetary Fund was created in 1944, with a goal to stabilize exchange rates and assist the reconstruction of the world's international payment system. Countries contributed to a pool which could be borrowed from, on a temporary basis, by countries with payment imbalances. World Bank A union of international organizations established in 1945 to provide aid to countries seeking to participate in international exchange, and to reduce poverty around the world. Its member organizations are the International Development Association, International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes, International Finance Corporation, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency. GATT 1947, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, reduced import quotas and trade restrictions PRI Party of the Institutionalized Revolution; dominant political party in Mexico; developed during the 1920s and 1930s; incorporated labor, peasant, military, and middle-class sectors; controlled other political organizations in Mexico. Lazaro Cardenas 1930s Mexican president; responsible for land redistribution, primarily created ejidos (communal farms); also began program of primary and rural education Apartheid A system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by whites was maintained. Blitzkrieg "Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939 Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere As announced in 1940 by Japan's prime minister, the area extending from Manchuria to the Dutch East Indies in which Japan would expand its influence Battle of Britian The massive air war against Great Britain by the Nazi war machine in Germany. Nearly nightly bombings occurred between summer of 1940 and summer of 1941 before German withdrew. Great Britain fought alone during this year and never gave up.