2 major functions of respiratory system
provide oxygen to all our cells, and removes carbon dioxide from our cells
oxygen is required for?
the oxidation of glucose during cellular respiration so that our mitochondria can store energy as ATP
whar are the products of cellular respiration?
oxygen breaks down glucose and produces, energy and carbon dioxide
gas exchange between the alveoli of the lungs and the capillaries of the blood vscular system
gas exchange between the capillaries of the blood vascular system and the tissue cells of the body
energy production in cells using oxygen and producing carbon dioxide as a waste product. this is the ultimate goal of respiration
what is the function of the nose?
cleans air, moistens air, heats air,adds resonance to the voice, gives you a hereditary signature, houses the olfactory nerves which allow you to smell
how can the nasal cavity clean, heat and moisten air?
It can because of the special type of mucous membranes lining the upper respiratory tract
what type of membrane lines the upper respiratory tract?
psuedostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells
cilia helps clean the air by?
sweeping particles toward the back of the nasal cavity where they are swallowed and enter the stomach, live organisms in particles are killed by stomach acid
what warms air?
venous sinuses located beneath the epithelium lining the nasal cavity warm the air as heat moves from the blood to the air within the nasal cavity
the roof of the nasal cavity is made of?
the roof of the nasal cavity(superior portion) is made of ethmoid bone(anteriorly) and sphenoid bone(posteriorly)
floor of nasal cavity is formed from?
the floor(inferior portion) of the nasal cavity is formed from maxillary bones(anteriorly) and palantine bones (posteriorly)
the septum is made up of?
two bones, the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone as well as hyaline cartlige
lateral wall of the septum has?
three shell shaped bones covered by mucous membranes to form the nasal conchae
nasal conchae function to?
supporting the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity, increasing the surface area of the nasal cavity so that the air can be cleaned, warmed,and moistened quickly.
recieves drainage from the lacrimal ducts so sometimes when you cry tears come out your nose
what are sinuses
air filled spaces within the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid bones of the skull
what do the sinuses do
reduce the weight of the skull and serve as resonant chambers thus affecting the quality of your voice
structures associated with upper respiratory
external nares, nasal cavity, nasal choncae, pharynx or throat, larynx or voice box
where is the pharynx located?
located posterior to the oral cavity and between the nasal cavity and the larynx
the pharynx functions in?
moving food into the esophagus, moving air into the larynx and aiding in sound production
three parts of the parynx are?
nasopharynx(superior), oropharynx(middle) and the laryngooharynx(inferior)
what is the larynx?
is an enlargement in the airway superior to the trachea and inferior to the pharynx
larynx functions to?
move air into the trachea, preventing foreign objects from entering the trachea when the epiglottis closes, and housing the vocal cords or folds
structures of the bronchial tree
include the trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi,tertiary bronchi, terminal bronchioles, and respiratory bronchioles
is the maximum amount of air that be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible
made up of neurons in the brain strem, primarily throughout the pons and especially in the medulla oblongata
located in visceral pleura, bronchioles, and alveoli, they inhibit inspiration to make sure the lungs dont overinflate during forceful inhalation
low oxygen levels
if blood has low oxygen levels, chemosensitive areas of the respiratory center are stimulated to increase alveolar ventilation, thus decreasing blood carbon dioxide levels
how does alveolar gas exchange occur
gas exchange by diffusion occurs between the alveolus and the blood at the respiratory membrane
the respiratory membrane includes?
the cells and basement membrane of the alveoli and the cells and basement membrane of the capillaries of the blood vascular system