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2 major functions of respiratory system

provide oxygen to all our cells, and removes carbon dioxide from our cells

oxygen is required for?

the oxidation of glucose during cellular respiration so that our mitochondria can store energy as ATP

carbon dioxide is?

a waste product of cellular respiration

where does cellular respiration occur?

It takes place in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells

whar are the products of cellular respiration?

oxygen breaks down glucose and produces, energy and carbon dioxide

ventilation

breathing or air movement within the respiratory system (in and out)

transport

of the gases oxygen and carbon dioxide by the blood

external respiration

gas exchange between the alveoli of the lungs and the capillaries of the blood vscular system

internal respiration

gas exchange between the capillaries of the blood vascular system and the tissue cells of the body

cellular respiration

energy production in cells using oxygen and producing carbon dioxide as a waste product. this is the ultimate goal of respiration

what is the function of the nose?

cleans air, moistens air, heats air,adds resonance to the voice, gives you a hereditary signature, houses the olfactory nerves which allow you to smell

how can the nasal cavity clean, heat and moisten air?

It can because of the special type of mucous membranes lining the upper respiratory tract

what type of membrane lines the upper respiratory tract?

psuedostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells

cilia helps clean the air by?

sweeping particles toward the back of the nasal cavity where they are swallowed and enter the stomach, live organisms in particles are killed by stomach acid

how is air moistened?

goblet cells secrete mucus and also traps particles

what warms air?

venous sinuses located beneath the epithelium lining the nasal cavity warm the air as heat moves from the blood to the air within the nasal cavity

the roof of the nasal cavity is made of?

the roof of the nasal cavity(superior portion) is made of ethmoid bone(anteriorly) and sphenoid bone(posteriorly)

floor of nasal cavity is formed from?

the floor(inferior portion) of the nasal cavity is formed from maxillary bones(anteriorly) and palantine bones (posteriorly)

behind the hard palate is?

the soft palate(uvula) which is muscle covered by mucous membranes

the septum is made up of?

two bones, the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone as well as hyaline cartlige

lateral wall of the septum has?

three shell shaped bones covered by mucous membranes to form the nasal conchae

nasal conchae function to?

supporting the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity, increasing the surface area of the nasal cavity so that the air can be cleaned, warmed,and moistened quickly.

meatus

the are under each choncha

middle meatus

recieves drainage from the maxillary and frontal sinuses

inferior meatus

recieves drainage from the lacrimal ducts so sometimes when you cry tears come out your nose

what are sinuses

air filled spaces within the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid bones of the skull

what do the sinuses do

reduce the weight of the skull and serve as resonant chambers thus affecting the quality of your voice

structures associated with upper respiratory

external nares, nasal cavity, nasal choncae, pharynx or throat, larynx or voice box

structures with lower respiratory

trachea, and lungs

where is the pharynx located?

located posterior to the oral cavity and between the nasal cavity and the larynx

the pharynx functions in?

moving food into the esophagus, moving air into the larynx and aiding in sound production

anatomical term for throat?

pharynx

three parts of the parynx are?

nasopharynx(superior), oropharynx(middle) and the laryngooharynx(inferior)

larynx aka

the voice box

what is the larynx?

is an enlargement in the airway superior to the trachea and inferior to the pharynx

opening of larynx is covered by?

the epiglottis when you swallow

opening to the larynx is called?

the glottis

larynx functions to?

move air into the trachea, preventing foreign objects from entering the trachea when the epiglottis closes, and housing the vocal cords or folds

major cartilages of the larynx

include the epiglottal, thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoids

true vocal cords are?

attached to the arytenoid cartlilage and allow the true vocal cords to move

lowemost portion of larynx composed of?

cricoid cartilage

larynx muscles include

the false vocal cords,and the true vocal cords

loudness of sound depends on?

the force of air passing over the vocal cords

trachea is

a flexible, cylindrical tube anterior to the esophagus and in the thoracic cavity

structures of the bronchial tree

include the trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi,tertiary bronchi, terminal bronchioles, and respiratory bronchioles

the function of the respiratory tubes

is to filter incoming air and distribute it to the alveoli

respiratory tubes

open into the alveolar ducts, which open to alveolar sacs and finally to alveoli

respiratory cycle

is one inhalation plus the following exhalation

tidal volume

the amount of air entering or leaving teh lungs during a normal respiratory cycle

vital capacity

is the maximum amount of air that be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible

total lung capacity

is the total volume of air the lungs can hold

examples of nonrespiratory air movements

coughing, sneezing, laughing, hiccupping and yawing.

coughing

clears the lower respiratory tract (trachea and lungs)

sneezing

clears the upper respiratory tract (larynx, pharynx, and nasal cavity)

hiccupping

no known function. but occurs do to spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm

yawing

helps your body maintain alertness and or cool the brain

respiratory center

made up of neurons in the brain strem, primarily throughout the pons and especially in the medulla oblongata

neurons of respiratory system do what?

control the rate and depth of breathing

pneumotaxic area

regulates the rate of breathing

rythmicity area

regulates the rhythm of breathing

rhythmicity divided into

the dorsal respiratory group and the ventral respiratory group

dorsal respiratory group

regulates the basic rhythm of breathing

ventral respiratory group

regulates forceful breathing

stretch receptors

located in visceral pleura, bronchioles, and alveoli, they inhibit inspiration to make sure the lungs dont overinflate during forceful inhalation

low oxygen levels

if blood has low oxygen levels, chemosensitive areas of the respiratory center are stimulated to increase alveolar ventilation, thus decreasing blood carbon dioxide levels

how does alveolar gas exchange occur

gas exchange by diffusion occurs between the alveolus and the blood at the respiratory membrane

the respiratory membrane includes?

the cells and basement membrane of the alveoli and the cells and basement membrane of the capillaries of the blood vascular system

diffusion depends on?

the partial pressure of the gases in the lungs and in the blood

how is oxygen carried in the blood?

on hemoglobin in the red blood cells

how is carbon dioxide carried in the blood?

through the blood to the lungs as bicarbonate ions

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