← Matthews - Overall Review Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Christine de Pisan Italian-born writer ___________ championed equality and education for women. theocracy A government in which church and state are joined and whose officials are considered to be divinely inspired is called ____________. Renaissance The ______________ was a period of renewed interest and remarkable development in art, literature, science, and learning. Lorenzo de Midici _____ was a well-educated poet from a powerful family in Florence who supported the arts. Leonardo Da Vinci _________ painted The Last Supper and The Mona Lisa The Prince Machiavelli's book, ___________, advised rulers to separate morals from politics. secular A movement, person, or group that has a worldly rather than a spiritual focus might be called _______. Utopia Sir Thomas Moore's book, _______, contains a vision of a perfect, but nonexistent, society based on reason. Protestant Reformation The __________was a reform movement in Europe in the 1500's what was a reaction to dissatisfaction with the Catholic Church. indulgence In the early 1500's the Church taught that the pope could reduce a soul's time in purgatory through the purchase of a(n) _____________. Protestant the term ________ came to being when Lutheran princes in the German parliament issued a protest against the 1529 movement to suppress Lutherans in Germany. annulled The pope would not allow King Henry VIII to ahve his marriage to Catherine of Aragon ___________, or declared invalid based on church laws. Counter-Reformation The _____________ was the response to the spread of Protestantism by the Catholic Church. Council of Trent The _________________, which met off and on until 1563, was convened by Pope Paul III to examine the criticisms made by Protestants about Catholic practices ghetto Jews were often forced to live in a particular part of the city called a _________ Italian wars The ____________, a series of wars in which France and Spain vied for control of the Italian peninsula, helped spread the Italian Renaissance throughout Europe. Charles Borromeo _________, Archbishop of Milan from 1560 to 1584, took decisive action to implement reforms decreed by the Council of Trent. Elizabeth I _____________, firmly established the Church of England and persecuted Catholics during her reign. Leonardo Da Vinci ____________ was a highly talented printer, writer, inventor, architect, engineer, mathematician, musician, and philosopher. Martin Luther _____________ wrote theses in which he denied the power of indulgences to remit sin and criticized the power of the pope and the wealth of the Church. predestination The doctrine of _____________ holds that God knows who will be saved and therefore guides the lives of those destined for salvation. protestantism In response to the spread of _____________, the Church began a series of reforms known as the Counter-Reformation. inquisition The church court of Rome , known as the _____________, tried people who were accused of being Protestant Italian Before the Age of Exploration, the flow of luxury goods to Europe from China and India was controlled by _____________ merchants. compass The _____________ played a key role in the Age of Exploration because it let sailors know at any time which direction was north. Africa Bartolomeu Dias became the first European to attempt to sail around the southern tip of _____________. Columbus When he reached the Caribbean islands, the Italian sailor _____________ believed he had reached the Asian islands known as the Indies. circumnavigate Although Ferdinand Magellan was killed in the Philippines, the remainder of his crew were the first to _____________, or sail completely around, the globe. encomienda In the _____________ system, Spanish colonists received land in the Americas and a number of Native American workers in exchange for teaching the workers about Christianity. conquistador A Spanish military leader who fought against the native people of the Americas was called a(n) _____________ Columbia Exchange The _____________ refers to the global transfer to plants, animals, and diseases between Europe and the Americas. Balance of Trade Mercantilists believed a country should mine gold adn silver as well as establish a favorable _____________, or export more goods than it imported. subsidies To encourage the export of manufactured goods governments provided _____________, or grants of money, to help business-people start new industries tariff Placing a _____________ on imported goods makes those goods more expensive, which discourages people from buying them. capitalism _____________ is an economic system in which most economic activity is carried on by private individuals or organizations in order to seek profit. joint-stock In a _____________ company, investors pool their money to fund large businesses and jointly take the risk of losing that money if the company fails. Middle Passage The _____________ refers to the spread of people of African decent throughout the Americas and Western Europe. British The _____________ established a colony at Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620. caravel A new type of ship that was light and fast and highly maneuverable was known as the _____________, Henry the Navigator _____________ of Portugal established a court for navigators and others interested in exploration. Jamestown The _____________ colony in Virginia was settled by people intending to make their fortunes by finding gold and silver, plantations Huge estates in the Americas called _____________ grew cash crops such as sugar and tobacco. mercantilism The economic theory of _____________ held that a nation's strength depended on its wealth. Asia Minor Anatolia id also known as _____________. janissaries Elite soldiers who were loyal only to the sultan were called _____________. Edirne After conquering Constantinople, the Ottomans made it their capital city and renamed it _____________. Shah The title for the Safavid Empire's ruler, meaning "king" was _____________. Babur Zahir ud-Din, better known as _____________, or "the tiger," defeated the rulers of Delhi and established the Mughal Empire in India. Sikhs The Mughal leader Jahangir came into conflict with a religious group known as the _____________, whose religion blended elements of Islam and Hinduism. brilliant The Chinese word "Ming" means _____________. Great Wall The Ming restored China's _____________ to improve defense against a renewed Mongol threat to the north. Forbidden City The Ming emperor Yonglo moved China's capital to Beijing and built an imperial city within it that became known as the _____________. tea The main Chinese export to Europe during the Qing dynasty was _____________. Bushido _____________, which means "way of the warrior," was a strict code of ethics in feudal Japan. Zen _____________ Buddhism, a form of Buddhism adopted by many Japanese feudal warriors, stressed discipline and meditation as ways to focus the mind and gain wisdom. Kamakazi Storms known as the _____________, meaning "divine wind," saved Japan from Mongol invasion in the 1200's Daimyo In feudal Japan, local _____________, powerful warlords who held large estates, gained control of their own territories and battled on another for power. Taj Mahal The greatest example of Mughal architecture was the _____________, built in Agra Kabuki In the 1600's, a new type of drama emerged in Japan called _____________, in which actors sing and dance, pausing to interact with the audience. hermit Korea was known as the _____________ Kingdom because of its isolation from the rest of the world. sultans Rulers of the Ottoman Empire were called _____________. Suleyman I The Ottoman Empire reached its height of power and cultural achievement under the leadership of _____________. Babur _____________ founded the Mughal Empire in 1526. Taj Mahal The _____________, the greatest example of Mughal architecture, was built during the empire's cultural golden age. Yonglo The ming Emperor _____________ sponsored overseas voyages to extend China's influence. Shogun The supreme military leader of Japan, called the _____________, ruled in the emperor's name. Divine Right Absolute rulers argued that they ruled by _____________, a concept that held that the monarchs received their power from God. Peace of Augsburg in 1555, the _____________ gave each German prince the right to decide whether his state would be Catholic or Protestant. El Greco The Spanish painter _____________ was famous for his elongated human figures. Sea dogs _____________ were English ship captains supported by Queen Elizabeth I who attacked Spanish treasure ships coming from America. Huguenots French Calvinist Protestants were called _____________. Constitutional Monarchy In England, the _____________ limited the power of kings and queens, prevented them from becoming absolute monarchs. James I King _____________ began the Stuart dynasty in England. Petition of Right In order to get money from Parliament, Charles I signed the _____________ in 1628, which placed limits on his power. Charles I _____________ was the first European monarch to be formally tried and executed by a court of law. restoration Parliament voted to bring back the English monarchy, an event known as the _____________. constitutional A monarchy limited by law is called a _____________ monarchy. Catherine the Great _____________ seized power from her husband Czar Peter III. Westphalia The Treaty of _____________ ended the Thirty Years' War. Maria Theresa Charles VI approved a document called the Pragmatic Sanction, which would allow his daughter, _____________ to take the empire at his death. Prussia As a result of the Seven Years' War, _____________ emerged as the strongest military power in Europe. Philip II When Charles V abdicated in 1556, his son, _____________, took over the Netherlands, Spain, Sicily, and Spain's colonies in the Americas. Edict of Nantes In 1598, the compromise known as the _____________ gave certain rights to Huguenots as a way to restore peace in France. Puritans The _____________ wanted to purify the Church of England. Spanish Succession The War of the _____________ was fought to prevent France and Spain from being ruled by members of the same family. Common Wealth A republican government based on the common good of all the people is called a(n) _____________. Czar Beginning with Ivan the Terrible, absolute monarchs in Russia were known as _____________. geocentric THe _____________ theory held that earth was the center of the universe and that the sun, moon, and planets revolved around it. calculus A new kind of mathematics called _____________ could be used to predict the effects of gravity. William Harvey English physician _____________ explained the workings of the human heart. Encyclopedia The purpose of the _____________ by Denis Diderot was to promote knowledge. Declaration of Independence In July 4, 1776, the _____________ was adopted by the Continental Congress. Washington General _____________ led the American troops in the War for Independence. Scientific Revolution During the _____________, scholars began to challenge traditional authorities, pose theories about the natural world, and develop procedures to test those ideas. Nicolaus Copernicus _____________ was the first scientist to create a complete model of the solar system combining physics, astronomy, and mathematics. Sir Isaac Newton _____________ developed the law of universal gravitation. John Locke _____________ argued that people had a right to overthrow a government that does not protect their natural rights. Jean-Jacques Rousseau _____________ wrote, "Man is born free but everywhere is in chains. Voltaire _____________ was a philosophe who was imprisoned twice and exiled from his country during his lifelong struggle for justice, religious toleration, and liberty. Mary Wollstonercraft In her 1792 book, "A Vindication of the Right of Women," _____________ argued that if men and women had equal education, they would be equal in society. Adam Smith In "The Wealth of the Nations," author _____________ argued that the economy would be stronger if the market forces of supply and demand were allowed to work freely. enlightened despots Monarchs who ruled according to Enlightenment ideas became known as _____________. Common Sense Thomas Paine's pamphlet _____________ argued that the American colonies deserved to be an independent nation. Sans-Culottes The workers of the Third Estate were known as the _____________, meaning "without knee breeches." Bourgeoisie City-dwelling merchants, factory owners, and professionals were known as the _____________. Paris Sans-Culottes Of the three political factions that made up the National Convention, the _____________ were the most radical. Guillotine The _____________ was used for most executions during the Reign of Terror. Plain The swing voters in the National Convention, called the _____________, eventually switched their support to the Mountain. Coup d'etat Napoleon took control of French government in a(n) _____________, a forced transfer of power. Continental System 1806 Napoleon's plan, called the _____________, restricted trade with Great Britain. czar Alexander I _____________ was the Russian ruler when Napoleon invaded in June 1812. Duke of Wellington During the Battle of Waterloo, British troops were led by _____________. indemnity Fance was required to pay a large _____________ to other countries to compensate them for damages. St. Helena napoleon was sent in exile to _____________, where he died six years later. Congress of Vienna The goal of the _____________ was to create a plan to restore order and stability to Europe after the turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars. Roman Catholic Clergy The First Estate was made up of _____________. National Assembly The Third Estate proclaimed itself a legislature called the _____________. Jacobin THe radical _____________ Club adopted policies supported by the lower middle class and the poor.