PT 702 Skull and Cranial Nerves Lecture

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6 bones that make up the cranial vault

Frontal
Parietal
Occipital
Temporal
Sphenoid
Ethmoid

The 4 sutures that make up the skull

Coronal
Sagittal
Squamousal
Lambdoidal

Suture between the frontal and parietal bones

Coronal

Suture between the 2 parietal bones

Sagittal

Suture between the parietal and temporal bones

Squamousal

Suture between the parietal and occipital bones

Lambdoidal

8 bones of the face

Nasal bones
Maxilla bones
Zygomatic bones
Mandible
Lacrimal bones
Inferior nasal conchae
Vomer bone
Palatine bones

Boundaries of the orbit

Frontal
Zygomatic
Maxilla
Lacrimal and ethmoid
Sphenoid

Roof of the orbit

Frontal

Lateral wall of the orbit

Zygomatic bones

Floor and part of the medial wall of the orbit

Maxilla

Medial wall of the orbit

Lacrimal bones
Ethmoid bones

Posterior wall of the orbit

Sphenoid bone

4 features of the orbit

Supraorbital foramen or notch
Optic foramen
Supraorbital and infraorbital fissure
Nasolacrimal canal

Foramen in the supraciliary arch

Supraorbital foramen or notch

Foramen in the upper medial orbit

Optic foramen

Fissures in below the optic foramen

Supraorbital and infraorbital fissures

Canal that communicates between the orbit and nasal cavity

Nasolacrimal canal

3 boundaries of the nasal cavity

Nasal bones
Maxillary bones
Nasal septum
(vomer and perpendicular plate of ethmoid)

Roof of nasal cavity

Nasal bones

Lateral walls of nasal cavity

Maxillary bones

Medial wall of nasal cavity

Nasal septum (vomer and perpendicular plate of ethmoid)

Features of the nasal cavity

Nasal conchae (superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae)

Projections from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity

Nasal conchae

Superior nasal conchae is part of what bone?

Ethmoid

Middle nasal conchae is part of what bone?

Ethmoid

Inferior nasal conchae does what?

Separate bones

Alveolar processes are features of what bones?

Maxilla and mandible (sockets for teeth)

Foramina on the mandible

Mental foramen

Foramina on the maxilla

Infraorbital foramen

Foramina on the frontal bones

Supraorbital foramen

5 features of the mandible

Condyloid process (TMJ)
Coronoid process
Ramus, body and angle
Genoid tubercle
Manibular foramen

Highest fossa in cranial vault holding the frontal lobes

Anterior cranial fossa

Middle fossa in cranial vault holding the temporal lobes

Middle cranial fossa

Lowest fossa in cranial vault holding the cerebellum and brain stem

Posterior cranial fossa

Spaces within the skull bones

Paranasal sinuses

Paranasal sinuses effect on bones and voice

Makes bones lighter and adds resonance to voice

Paranasal sinuses are lined with

muscous membranes

Paransal sinuses are continuous with

the nasal cavity

4 types of paranasal sinuses

Frontal
Ethmoid
Sphenoid
Maxillary

Sinuses that could be 3 to 13 of the them

Ethmoid

Purpose of skull foramina

Allows vessels and cranial nerves to exit the cranial vault

CN I

Olfactory nerve

CN II

Optic nerve

CN III

Oculomotor nerve

CN IV

Trochlear nerve

CN V

Trigeminal nerve

CN VI

Abducens nerve

CN VII

Facial nerve

CN VIII

Vestibulocochlear nerve

CN IX

Glossopharyngeal nerve

CN X

Vagus nerve

CN XI

Accessory nerve

CN XII

Hypoglossal nerve

7 cranial nerves that are sensory

CN I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X

3 cranial nerves that are only sensory

CN I, II, VIII

9 cranial nerves that are motor

CN III, IV, V, VI, VII, IX, X, XI, XII

5 cranial nerves that are only motor

CN III, IV, VI, XI, XII

4 cranial nerves that are mixed

CN V, VII, IX, X

Nerve located in upper nasal cavity and travels through the cribiform plate (transmits gaseous impulses to olfactory cortex)

CN I (olfactory nerve-sensory)

Sensory nerve that senses sight and travels through the optic canal, enters the back of the eye and transmits light impulses to the visual cortex)

CN II (optic nerve)

Motor nerve that elevates, depresses and adducts the eye and travels through the superior orbital fissure (pupillary constrictor muscle)

CN III (oculomotor nerve)

Motor nerve that rotates the eye down and out and travels through the superior orbital fissure (superior oblique muscle)

CN IV (trochlear nerve)

Sensory and motor nerve that provides sensation and mastication to the face and separates into 3 divisions while traveling through 7 foramina

CN V (trigeminal nerve)

Sensory nerve providing sensation to the upper face and eye traveling through the superior orbital fissure and supraorbital foramen/notch

CN V1 (opthalmic nerve)

Sensory nerve that provides sensation to the middle of the face and upper teeth and travels through the foramen rotundum and infraorbital foramen

CN V2 (maxilla nerve)

Sensory and motor nerve providing sensation to the lower face, lower teeth and anterior 2/3 of tongue and mastication traveling through the foramen ovale, mandibular foramen and mental foramen

CN V3 (mandibular nerve)

Motor nerve that abducts the eye and travels through the superior orbital fissure (lateral rectus muscle)

CN VI (abducens nerve)

Sensory and motor nerve that provides sensation to the anterior 2/3 tongue and facial expression; para/sympathetic to lacrimal and salivary glands traveling through the internal acoustic meatus and stylomastoid foramen

CN VII (facial nerve)

Sensory nerve providing hearing and equilibrium and travels through the internal acoustic meatus innervating semicircular canals and cochlea transmitting sound impulses to auditory cortex

CN VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve)

Sensory and motor nerve that provides taste and sensory to posterior 1/3 of tongue and pharynx muscle (stylopharyngeus); para/sympathetic to parotid gland traveling through the jugular foramen

CN IX (glossopharyngeal nerve)

Sensory and motor nerve to the organs of the neck, thorax and abdomen (para/sympathetic) traveling through the jugular foramen

CN X (vagus nerve) widest distribution

Motor nerve innervating trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles traveling through foramen magnum

CN XI (accessory nerve)

Motor nerve to all tongue muscles (both intrinsic and extrinsic) traveling through hypoglossal canal

CN XII (hypoglossal nerve)

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