What does ADA stand for and what year was it passed?
Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990
What are the 3 levels of the NIC
Certified, Advanced, and Mastered
Certificate of Interpretation
Certificate of Transliteration
Oral Transliteration Certificate
Specialist Certificate: Legal
Conditional Legal Interpreting Permit-Relay
Master Comprehensive Skills Certificate
Comprehensive Skills Certificate
Oral Interpreting Certificate
Reverse Skills Certificate
NAD: Level III
National Association of the Deaf - Generalist
NAD: Level IV
National Association of the Deaf - Advanced
NAD: Level V
National Association of the Deaf - Master
American Consortium of Certified Interpreters
Specialist Certificate: Performance Arts
Conditional Legal Interpreting Permit
Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment
Continuing Education Units
Certification Maintenance Program
Associate Continuing Education Tracking
-Participation in ACET allows RID to track your completion of CEUs for you.
Who can become an CMP approved sponsor?
The PDC is responsible for approving applications for organizations, agencies, and individuals to become approved sponsors.
Professional Development Committee
What is the approved sponsors role?
To provide appropriate educational opportunities to interpreters. Those opportunities are pre-approved to provide CEUs
When did CMP begin operation?
July 1, 1994
What are the requirements for obtaining CEUs?
All members who are certified interpreters are required to complete 8.0 CEUs (80 contact hours) within four years.
6.0 CEUs must be professional studies content
2.0 CEUs can be general studies
Participant-Initiated Non-RID Activities
Examples: audited college course, organizational conventions, community education, etc.
Conference of Interpreter Trainers
-the professional organization of interpreter educators
Mano a Mano
National Organization of interpreters who work in Spanish-Influenced settings
National Alliance of Black Interpreters, INc.
The International Association of Conference Interpreters (the only worldwide association for conference interpreters)
World Association of Sign Language Interpreters
Communication Access Realtime Translation
American Association of the Deaf-Blind
Coalition of Organizations for Accessible Technology
Intertribal Deaf Council
(similar to native american organizations)
National Asian Deaf Congress
National Black Deaf Advocates
World Federation of the Deaf
Described and Captioned Media Program
-equal access to media. DCMP acts as a captioning info and training center
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders: focused on medical information and research.
Promoting Awareness in Healthcare, Medical and Deaf
National Disability Rights Network
Disabled People's Association
Who is Alice Cogswell
The 9 year old girl neighbor of Gallaudets that inspired Gallaudet to educate deaf people.
Who accompanied Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet back to America?
What year did ASD open?
American School for the Deaf opened in 1817.
In what year, and by whom, was the now Gallaudet University founded?
Thomas Gallaudet's son, Edward founded what was then called "The National Deaf-Mute College" in 1864
National Theatre for the Deaf was established in what year?
Explain what the Milan Conference is and what year it took place.
September 6-11, 1880 an innational conference of Deaf educators was held. A declaration was made that oral education was better than any manual sign language form of education so they outlawed the use of sign language in education.
What year did Deaf President Now take place?
What was the name of the hearing president that was forced to resign after DPN and the name of the president who was later welcomed?
Elizabeth A. Zinswer resigned a few days after the protests began and by the end of the week Dr. I. King Jordan became Gallaudet's first Deaf president.
Which tenet address multiple roles in interpreting?
Tenet 3.3 guides interpreters to avoid role conflicts, "avoid performing dual or conflicting roles in multidisciplinary or other settings."
What is the number one determining factor in deciding a team of interpreters is needed?
The difficulty of the assignment
What is RSI?
Repetitive Strain Injury is a stress-related, cumulative type of injury resulting from repetitive movements.
RSIs are also often referred to as what?
cumulative trauma disorder, muscle-skeletal disorder, repetitive motion injuries, tennis elbow, and mouse thumb
The most common early symptoms of RSI for interpreters are what?
Pain, stiffness, numbness, and burning starting in the neck and often going down into the arm and hands.
National Interpreter Education Center
Hosted by NIEC, project Teaching INterpreting Educators and Mentors provides a list of resources for how to contact a mentor as well as provide support for what that mentorship relationship should look like.
ADA was enacted in which year?
What section of the ADA are interpreters addressed?
Under Title III.V Interpreters are considered a type of auxiliary aid that is required to be provided for communication with any individuals with hearing impairments.
Commission on Collegiate Interpreter Education: was established to promote professionalism by provided accreditation to ITPs
National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers
American Sign Language Teachers Association
National Testing System (for RID)
National Council on Interpreting
-formed by NAD and RID to Develop the National Interpreter Certification exam.
In what year was RID established and why was it founded then?
June 14-17 in 1964 in Muncie Indiana a workshop was held to bring more structure and foundation to the training of interpreters.
What year did RID change its name, and why?
Many of the participants who were at the original workshop felt that it was time to formalize interpreting as a profession an. So after a name change to RID they were incorporated in 1972
CPC Tenet 1.0
Interpreters adhere to standards of CONFIDENTIAL communication
Tenet 1.0 Guiding Principle
"Interpreters hold position of trust in their role as linguistic and cultural facilitators of communication. Confidentiality is highly valued by consumers and is essential to protecting all involved."
CPC Tenet 2.0
Interpreters possess the PROFFESSIONAL skills and knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation.
Tenet 2.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to stay abreast of evolving language use and trends in the profession of interpreting as well as in the American Deaf community. Interpreters accept assignments using discretion with regard to skill, communication mode, setting, consumer needs. Terps possess knowledge of American Deaf culture and deafness-related resources.
CPC Tenet 3.0
Interpreters CONDUCT themselves in a manner appropriate to the specific interpreting situation
Tenet 3.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to present themselves appropriately in demeanor and appearance. They avoid situations that result in conflicting roles or perceived or actual conflicts of interest.
CPC Tenet 4.0
Interpreters demonstrate RESPECT FOR CONSUMERS.
Tenet 4.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to honor consumer preferences in selection of interpreters an interpreting dynamics, while recognizing the realities of qualifications, availability, and situation.
CPC Tenet 5.0
Interpreters demonstrate RESPECT FOR COLLEAGUES, INTERNS AND STUDENTS within the profession.
Tenet 5.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to collaborate with colleagues to foster the delivery of effective interpreting services. They also understand that the manner in which they relate to a colleague reflects upon the profession in general.
CPC Tenet 6.0
Interpreters maintain ethical BUSINESS PRACTICES.
Tenet 6.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to conduct their business in a professional manner whether in private practice or in the employ of an agency or other entity. Professional interpreters are entitled to a living wage based on their qualifications and expertise. Interpreters are also entitled to working conditions conducive to effective service delivery.
CPC Tenet 7.0
Interpreters engage in PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Tenet 7.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to foster and maintain interpreting competence and the stature of the profession through ongoing development of knowledge and skills.
The scientific study of a language system
Sentence Structure/the study of the way in which sentences are constructed/how sentences are put together
Meaning/the study of the relationship between signs and symbols and what they represent, the meaning of signs and symbols in a language.
Word Formation/the study of how a language uses smaller units to build larger units
Sound production/transmission, how they are articulated and perceived.
Prosody (in english)
The rhythm of speech with pauses and phraseology, as well as certain auditory intonation patterns.
Does ASL or English use passive voice often?
English! ASL tends to use a lot of active voice.
Noun/Verb Modifiers describes:
-the relationship of a person/place/thing;
-what a person/place/thing looks like;
-how a person/place/thing moves.
In English, the relationship of a person/place/thing to another person/place/thing is spoken how?
With prepositions and prepositional phrases
In ASL, the relationship of a person/place/thing to another person/place/thing is conveyed how?
With the use of Classifiers and Directional Verbs
How do ASL and English differ in the way they describe a person/place/thing?
English tends to use vocal intonation and spoken adjectives.
-ASL uses a combination of signed adjectives as well as a special set of classifiers called SASSes (size and shape classifiers)
Sentences (linguistic definitino)
made up of combined clauses that are combined morphemes
Pragmatic use of language
the way a language is actually used rather than language function; helps us make sense of the language we encounter in our interactions with others and determine the meaning of the utterances within the given context.
the deliberate use of words, signs or phrases that can be interpreted in more than one way in order to mislead someone.
(ex. telling a friend that her new hair cut "It's really different!") avoiding real answer
the use of socially acceptable terms and phrases in place of blunt descriptive ones.
(ex. "He has gone to a better place" oppose to saying "He died")
What are the different types of "Powerless forms of language"?
Hedges, hesitations, intensifiers, polite forms, tag questions and "up talk", disclaimers.
when a part of the segment of a sign changes place.
Rules that vary from language to language
symbols made up of discreet, meaningless parts
combined phonemes, formed into meaningful parts
What is a phoneme in English? Examples?
different sounds that speakers make that are part of the language, but have no meaning.
What aspect of ASL would be considered a phoneme? Examples?
handshape, location, palm, orientation, movement, and non-manual markers
-for ex. a Hand out with palm down (has no meaning)
Explain and give an example of what a morpheme is in English.
words and other units that have meaning
-fr example the affix "s"
-"s" is a phoneme, but when you add it to "car" then "cars" is a morpheme because it changed the meaning of the word
Explain and give an example of what a morpheme looks like in ASL.
individual signs as well as other features such as numeral incorporation that can modify the meaning of a basic sign.
ex. "Hand out with palm down" has no meaning and "CL:3" doesn't have meaning by itself either, but if we were to sign CL:3 underneath the palm, then the sign becomes GARAGE and is now amorpheme
When an interpreter relies on the interpreted message of another interpreter, like with a CDI or in multi-lingual teams
What are factors that affect the interpreting process?
interpersonal skills, interpreters as "human beings", public speaking, cross-cultural communication, advocacy
What are some examples of when situational factors make cultural adjustments NOT necessary?
Parallelism, deaf culture identity, degree of biculturism
the transaction is the same in both cultures
Another term for "lag time"
Minimal Language Skills
Lexical category: Major
words/signs functioning as nouns, verbs, adjectives, or adverbs
Lexical category: Minor
determiners, auxiliary verbs, prepositions, conjunctions and pronouns
When was the original Code of Ethics established and what was its tone?
It established in 1964 but was very religious influenced because the "professionals" at the time were really volunteering alot
When did the first revision to the Code of ethics happen and what was included?
In 1965 the Code of Ethics was changed completely. It had 12 articles and imposed confidentiality for the first time.
In the CPC "Function of the Guiding Principles" what are the obligations of every interpreter and the driving force behind those guiding principles.
It is the obligation of every interpreter to
2.employ critical thinking
3.reflect on past actions
The driving force behind those principles is the notion that the interpreter will do no harm.
Purpose of the CPC
1. establish framework for appropriate behavior
2. protects interpreters and defends all participants' rights who are involved
3. Provides guidelines and clarification of the role
4. allows for consistence within in the field, supporting predictability of professional behavior
What are the laws that supersede the CPC?
ALL local, state and federal laws supersedes the code. This includes IDEA, Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act, and ADA
In what category does the interpreter fall under in the IDEA?
Interpreters are under "Related service providers", which makes them an active part of the consumers IEP. Federal government mandates that Interpreters are involved in the education plan of deaf students.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act provides what services?
After a student becomes 22, they no longer qualify for services under IDEA so 504 becomes responsible for establishing that the needs for services are still there (ex. job training, or college applications, etc.) and then providing them with those services.
Entitlement vs. Eligibility
IDEA requires by law that services be provided. So until the age of 22 consumers are entitled to these services. Section 504 is no longer required to provide services but CAN depending on wether or not the consumer is eligible.
"the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior tat depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations..."
"a group of people with a common characteristic or interest living together within a larger society
study of social and personal space
study of the way something is said, including intonation, speech rate, use of silence, etc.
study of body motions such as gestures, eye gaze, facial expression
Each culture has its own set which influences kinesics, paralinguistics, and proxemics.
Low context culture
low dependence on context therefore less sub-textual information needs to be explained to be understood
High context cultures
high dependence on context and if you do not have the information you may not understand conversations
What are 3 things a terp should know how to handle when in various environments of deaf culture?
The majority of interpreting is done in what register?
Role of Mediator
Someone in "constant control of the mediation session to ensure that it stays focused."
Why is Interpreter in the role of a mediator difficult?
-influencing other parties due to our cultural perspectives
Alliance with consumer through cultural/language/family background. Spoken language interpreters often have an inherint trust because of this, but sign language interpreters will never have the inherint trust
What are 5 major aspects when it comes to Ethics?
Trust, Being discreet, accuracy, proficiency, and the ability to be impartial
What are some examples of possible unintentional audism within RID?
-Testing, language use at conferences, passing of EIPA
Interpreter as a care-taker. First philosophy of RID, back in 1964
Machine (Conduit) Philosophy
Interpreters began to approach their work in a strict rigid manner, denying that their presence had impact on the dynamic of the situation. Came after trying to get change the helper philosophy mindset
Communication Facilitation Philosphy
Shift towards this in the 70s because interpreters started to realize the importance of language and the environmental settings that were involved in situations. They begun being more mindful of visual noise and started to manage the environmental factors of the interpretation also
Bi-lingual/Bi-cultural Philosophy of Interpretation
Probably most common in the field now.
Names of People with proccess of interpreting models
kitano, pradis, seleskovitch, moser-mercer, ingram, gerver
When did RID begin evaluation of interpreters?