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Test 5

3-tier Architecture

A client/server environment that uses middleware to translate requests between the client and server.

Account

A record of a user that contains all of her properties, including rights to resources, password, user name and so on.

Active Directory

The method for organizing and managing objects associated with the network in the Windows Server 2003 and Server 2008 NOSs.

Administrator

a user account that has unlimited privileges to resources and objects managed by a server or domain. The administrator account is created during NOS installation.

AIX

A proprietary implementation of the UNIX system distributed by IBM.

Asymmetric Multiprocessing

A multiprocessing method that assigns each subtask to a specific processor.

Attribute

A variable property associated with a network object. For example, a restriction on the time of day a user can log on is an attribute associated with that user object.

Branch

A part of the organizational structure of an operating system's directory that contains objects or other organizational units.

BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution)

A UNIX distribution that originated at the University of California at Berkeley. The BSD suffix differentiates these distributions from AT&T distributions. no longer being developed at Berkeley, the last public release of BSD UNIX was version 4.4

Child Domain

A domain established within another domain in a Windows Server 2003 or Server 2008 domain tree.

CIFS (Common Internet File System)

A file access protocol. CIFS runs over TCP/IP and is the standard file access protocol used by Windows operating systems.

Class

A type of object recognized by an NOS directory and defined in an NOS schema. Printers and users are examples of object classes.

CN (Common Name)

In LDAP naming conventions, the name of an object.

Command Interpreter

A program (usually text-based) that accepts and executes system programs and applications on behalf of users. Often, it includes the ability to execute a series of instructions that are stored in a file.

DC (Domain Component)

In LDAP naming conventions, the name of any one of the domains to which an object belongs.

Directory

In general, a listing that organizes resources and correlates them with their properties. In the context of NOSs, a method for organizing and managing objects.

Distribution

The term used to refer to the different implementations of a particular UNIX or Linux system. For example, different distributions of Linux include Fedora, SUSE, and Ubuntu.

DN (Distinguished Name)

A long form of an object's name in Active Directory that explicitly indicates the object name, plus the names of its containers and domains. A distinguished name includes a DC (domain component), OU (organizational unit), and CN (common name). A client uses the distinguished name to access a particular object, such as a printer.

Domain

A group of users, servers, and other resources that share account and security policies through a Windows Server 2003 or Server 2008 NOS.

Domain Controller

A Windows Server 2003 or Server 2008 computer that contains a replica of the Active Directory database.

Domain Model

In Microsoft terminology, the type of client/server network that relies on domains, rather than workgroups.

Domain Tree

A group of hierarchically arranged domains that share a common namespace in the Windows Server 2003/2008 Active Directory.

Explicit One-Way Trust

A type of trust relationship in which two domains that belong to different NOS directory trees are configured to trust each other.

Ext3

The name of the primary file system used in most Linux distributions.

Fedora

A version of Linux packaged and distributed by Red Had.

File Access Protocol

A protocol that enables one system to access files on another system.

File Globbing

A form of filename substitution, similar to the use of wildcards in Windows and DOS.

File System

An operating system's method of organizing, managing, and accessing its files through logical structures and software routines.

Forest

In the context of Windows Server 2003/2008, a collection of domain trees that use different namespaces. A forest allows for trust relationships to be established between trees.

GNU

The name given to the public software project to implement a complete, free source code implementation of UNIX. it also refers to the collection of UNIX-inspired utilities and tools that are included with Linux distributions. ______ is an acronym within an acronym that stands for "____s Not UNIX."

Group

A means of collectively managing users' permissions and restrictions applied to shared resources. Groups form the basis for resource and account management for every type of NOS. Many network administrators create groups according to department or, even more specifically, according to job function within a department.

GUI (Graphical User Interface)

A pictorial representation of computer functions and elements that, in the case of NOSs, enables administrators to more easily manage files, users, groups, security, printers, and other issues.

GUID (Globally Unique Identifier)

A 128-bit number generated and assigned to an object upon its creation in Active Directory. Network applications and services uses an object's GUID to communicate with it.

Hierarchical File System

The organization of files and directories (or folders) on a disk in which directories may contain files and other directories. When displayed graphically, this organization resembles a treelike structure.

Inherited

A type of permission, or right, that is passed down from one group (the parent) to a group within that group (the child)

Inode (Information Node)

A UNIX or Linux file system information storage area that holds all details about a file. This information includes the size, the access rights, the date and time of creation, and a pointer to the actual contents of the file.

Kernel

The core of a UNIX or Linux system. this part of the operating system is loaded and run when you turn on your computer. It mediates between user programs and the computer hardware.

Kernel Module

A portion of the kernel that you can load and unload to add or remove functionality on a running UNIX or Linux system.

LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)

A standard protocol for accessing network directories.

Leaf Object

An object in an operating system's directory, such as a printer or user that does not contain other objects.

Linux

A freely distributable implementation of a UNIX-type of system. Finnish computer scientist Linus Torvalds originally developed it.

lpd (line printer daemon)

A UNIX service responsible for printing files placed in the printer queue by the 1pr command.

lpr

A UNIX command that places files in the printer queue. The files are subsequently printed with 1pd, the print service.

Mac OS X Server

A proprietary NOS from Apple Computer that is based on a version of UNIX.

Man Pages (Manual Pages)

The online documentation for any variety of the UNIX operating system. This documentation describes the use of the commands and the programming interface.

Map

The action of associating a disk, directory, or device with a drive letter.

Member Server

A type of server on a Windows Server 2003/2008 network that does not hold directory information and, therefore, cannot authenticate others.

Middleware

The software that sits between the client and server in a 3-tier architecture. ______ may be used as a messaging service between clients and servers, as a universal query language for databases, or as means of coordinating processes between multiple servers that need to work together in servicing clients.

MMC (Microsoft Management Console)

A customizable, graphical network management interface introduced with Windows Server 2003 and incorporated in Windows Server 2008's Server Manager.

Mount

The process of making a disk partition available.

Multiprocessing

The technique of splitting tasks among multiple processors to expedite the completion of any single instruction.

Multitasking

The ability of a processor to perform multiple activities in a brief period of time (often seeming simultaneous to the user.)

Namespace

The complete database of hierarchical names (including host and domain names) used to resolve IP addresses with their hosts.

NFS (Network File System)

A popular remote file system created by Sun Microsystems, and available UNIX and Linux operating systems.

NTFS (New Technology File System)

A file system developed by Microsoft and used with its Windows NT, 2000 Server, Server 2003, and 2008 operating systems.

Object

A representation of a thing or person associated with the network that belongs in the NOS directory. Objects include users, printers, groups, computers, data files, and applications.

Open Source Software

The term used to describe software that is distributed with few restrictions and who source code is freely available.

OU (Organizational Unit)

A logical receptacle for holding objects with similar characteristics or privileges in an NOS directory. Containers form the branches of the directory tree.

Page File

A file on the hard drive that is used for virtual memory.

Paging

The process of moving blocks of information, called pages, between RAM and into a page file on disk.

Partition

An area of a computer's hard drive that is logically defined and acts as a separate disk drive.

Per Seat

In the context of applications, a licensing mode that limits access to an application to specific users or workstations.

Per User

A licensing mode that allows a fixed quantity of clients to use one software package simultaneously.

Physical Memory

The RAM chips installed on the computer's system board that provide dedicated memory to that computer.

Pipe

A character that enables you to combine existing commands to form new commands. The _____ symbol is the vertical bar (|).

Pipeline

A series of two or more commands in which the output of prior commands is sent to the input of subsequent commands.

PowerPC

The brand of computer central processing unit invented by Apple Computer, IBM, and Motorola, and used in IBM servers.

Preemptive Multitasking

The type of multitasking in which tasks are actually performed one at a time, in very brief succession. In______ ______, one program uses the processor for a certain period of time, then is suspended to allow another program to use the processor.

Printer Queue

A logical representation of a networked printer's functionality. To use a printer, clients must have access to the printer queue

Process

A routine of sequential instructions that run until it has achieved its goal. For example, a spreadsheet program.

Proprietary UNIX

Any implementation of UNIX for which the source code is either unavailable or available only by purchasing a licensed copy from Novell (costing as much as millions of dollars). Redistribution of proprietary UNIX versions require paying royalties to Novell.

RDN (Relative Distinguished Name)

An attribute of an object that identifies the object separately from its related container(s) and domain. For most objects, the relative distinguished name is the same as its common name (CN) in the distinguished name convention.

Redirector

A service that ruins on a client workstation and determines whether the client's request should be handled by the client or the server.

Replication

The process of copying Active Directory data to multiple domain controllers. This ensures redundancy so that in case one of the domain controllers fails, clients can still log on to the network, be authenticated, and access resources.

Role

In Microsoft terminology, the primary purpose of a Windows Server 2008 server.

Root

A highly privileged user ID that has all rights to create, delete, modify, move, read, write, or execute files on a UNIX or Linux systems.

Root Domain

In Windows Server 2003 or Server 2008 networking, the single domain from which child domains branch out in a domain tree.

Samba

An open source software package that provides complete Windows-style file and printer sharing capabilities.

Schema

The description of object types, or classes, and their required and optional attributes that are stored in an NOS's directory.

Server Manager

A GUI tool provided with Windows Server 2008 that enables network administrators to manage server roles, features, resources, and users from a single interface.

Shell

Another term for the UNIX command interpreter.

Site License

A type of software license that, for a fixed price, allows any number of users in one location to legally access a program.

SMB (Server Message Block)

A protocol for communications and resource access between systems, such as clients and servers, SMB originated at IBM and then was adopted and further developed by Microsoft for use on its Windows operating systems. The current version of SMB is known as the CIFS (Common Internet File System) protocol.

Solaris

A proprietary implementation of the UNIX operating system by Sun Microsystems.

Source Code

The computer instructions written in a programming language that is readable by humans. Source code must be translated into a form that is executable by the machine, typically called binary code (for the sequence all zeros and ones) or target code.

SPARC

The brand of computer central processing unit invented by and used in Sun Microsystems servers.

Symmetric Multiprocessing

A method of multiprocessing that splits all operations equally among two or more processors.

System V

The proprietary version of UNIX that comes from Bell Labs.

The Open Group

A nonprofit industry association that owns the UNIX trademark.

Thread

A well-defined, self-contained subset of a process. Using _____ within a process enables a program to efficiently perform related, multiple, simultaneous activities. _____ are also used to enable processes to use multiple processors on SMP systems.

Tree

A logical representation of multiple, hierarchical levels in a directory. It is called a _____ because the whole structure shares a common starting point (the root), and from that point extends branches (or containers), which may extend additional branches, and so on.

Trust Relationship

The relationship between two domains on a Windows Server 2003/2008 Network that allows a domain controller from one domain to authenticate users from the other domain.

Two-Way Transitive Trust

The security relationship between domains in the same domain tree in which one domain grants every other domain in the tree access to its resources and, in turn, that domain can access other domains' resources. When a new domain is added to a tree, it immediately shares a two-way trust with the other domains in the tree.

UNIX

A client or server operating system originally developed by researchers at AT&T Bell Labs in 1969. _____ is a proprietary operating system, but similar operating systems, such as Linux, are freely distributable.

UPN (User Principle name)

The preferred Active Directory naming convention for objects when used in informal situations. This name looks like a familiar internet address, including the positioning of the domain name after the @ sign. _____s are typically used for email and related internet services.

UPN (User Principle Name) Suffix

The portion of a universal principle name (in Active Directory's naming conventions) that follows the @ sign.

Virtual Memory

The memory that is logically carved out of space on the hard drive and added to physical memory (RAM).

Virtualization

The capability for operating multiple logical servers---or virtual servers---on a single machine.

Workgroup

In Microsoft terminology, a group of interconnected computers that share each others' resources without relying on a central file server.

X Window System

The GUI environment for UNIX and Linux systems.

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