Measured rates of behaviors in the absence of treatment (child's skill level before treatment)
What are baselines used for?
1. to evaluate the child's progress over time
2. to establish treatment effectiveness (or ineffectiveness)
3. to establish clinician accountability
What are the four steps to administering a baseline test?
1. Specify the Treatment Targets in Measurable Terms (Write the Goal)
2. Prepare Stimulus Items
3. Prepare Recording Sheet
4. Administer Baseline Trials (20 stimulus productions)
What does the Baseline goal entail?
it show where you want the child to produce targets and with what accuracy
What should be included when preparing materials?
-look at child's age, cultural background, linguistic abilities
-give child at least 20 items/chances to produce the target behavior
How do you administer the Baseline Trials?
have the child repeat items, or show pictures or flashcards, etc.
What should you notice when administering the Baseline Trial?
Coarticulation effects, child's ability to produce sounds in various contexts and with different phonemes
What is included on the Recording Sheet?
Names, Date, and four goals or objectives per sheet
How do you mark the Recording Sheet?
As the child moves through, mark which ones he gets right or wrong. Provides a quick way to figure percentages. Write percentages at bottom of column
What are the three types of goals in therapy?
daily goals, short-term goals, long-term goals
What are the important things needed for therapy sessions?
1. Criteria for each daily goal
2. Reinforcement Plan
3. Activities for each goal
6. Planning time
7. Materials to use
Why do we need articulation goals?
1. Gives you direction to move in
2. Allows you to document progress
3. Helps parents/clients and insurance companies see the progress being made
What data and information is used to set goals?
1. Normative Data
2. Developmental Charts
5. Family Concerns
6. Personal Intuition
What the client will accomplish when therapy is completed
Example of a long-term goal
Johnny will be 100% intelligible in conversational speech during three consecutive three-minute language samples
Where you think client can be at the end of the semester or school year
What items need to be included for each goal?
Phoneme, position, level of complexity, and criteria
What two things should you keep in mind when setting a short term goal?
1. Must be justified by specific test results
(You can't choose a goal if the testing results don't indicate a need for it)
2. Criteria should be attainable
Example of a short-term goal:
Johnny will correctly produce the /s/ phoneme in the initial position of ten one syllable words following a clinician model with 95% accuracy
DO we as therapists need to report progress on each goal?
Yes, progress on each goal needs to be reported; use the same number as used with the goals
What needs to be included in the written progression on goals?
baseline data, therapy approach (traditional or phonological), and post-date
What other additional comments can be made on progress reports?
specific material, reinforcers, reinforcement schedules, parent/spouse participation, and/or client behaviors
2. (number of goal) Baseline date taken on January 27th, indicated that Mary could produce the phoneme /s/ in the initial position of one syllable words with 10% accuracy
-A traditional articulation approach was used
-Final data taken on April 2nd indicated that Mary could produce the phoneme /s/ in the initial position of one syllable words with 95% accuracy
What must be done before the therapy session?
1. Plan goals, reinforcement, and activities
2. Plan criteria for advancement
3. Use Daily Therapy Plan and Log Sheet
What is addressed during the therapy session?
1. Follow your plan
2. Be flexible as needed
3. Sometimes children are finished with an activity before the clinician
What takes place after the session?
2. Drink some water
3. Listen to soothing music
4. Play tennis, etc.
What final steps need to be taken care of after a therapy session?
1. Determine the daily performance
2. Figure # of responses and percent correct
3. Fill out Daily Therapy Plan and Log
-Include goals addressed by number
-Include criteria achieved
-Include reinforcement use
-Include activities and materials
-Include your plan for subsequent sessions
What is the sheet called that you use to record daily therapy session?
Daily Therapy Plan and Log
What is the "Projected Criteria" on the Daily Therapy Plan and Log?
the goal you have for the child
What is the "Criteria Achieved" on the Daily Therapy Plan and Log?
how the child actually performed
Give an example of what would be listed under "Reinforcement Types and Ratios"
Give an example of what would be listed under Activities and/or Programs
How you feel the child did
the criteria actually achieved
why the child may have performed the way he did (late, ill, etc.)
What you will work on next session
The Sandwich Approach to Therapy
Easy: start with something the child can do well
Hard: try something more challenging
Easy: end with something he can do well