Bumpus AP II final Ch 22-24

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Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance?

Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.

Select the correct statement about absorption.

If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.

When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body temperature is below that level, the person may _______.

shiver

Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the _________.

ciliated mucous lining in the nose

Which of the choices below is not a mechanism of heat production?

sweating

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?

as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

Dietary fats are important because they ____________.

help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins

Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria?

glycolysis

Anabolism includes reactions in which _____________.

larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by _______.

Boyle's Law

Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?

alveoli

Chyme is created in the ___________.

stomach

In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except _______________.

production of energy

Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin saturation?

nitric oxide

Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?

aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?

cartilage rings

The term metabolism is best defined as ________.

biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ___________.

jejunum

The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?

Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.

Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?

There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.

As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ___________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.

brain

The amount of ___________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR.

thyroxine

Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized?

fats

Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?

rennin

With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a _________________.

decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.

is longer than the small intestine

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

The nose serves all the following functions except ________.

as the initiator of the cough reflex

Which of the following is not a function of LDLs?

transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver

Which of these is not a component of saliva?

nitric oxide

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.

increase of carbon dioxide

Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?

emphysema

the function of the goblet cells is to _______________.

produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

The erythrocytes count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ___________.

concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

The ___________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.

liver

What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?

intrinsic factor

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.

glucose

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?

trypsin

There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs _______.

before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?

Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.

The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.

alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, had importance in the body because it _________.

is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones

The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ___________.

submucosa

Respiratory control centers are located in ____________.

medulla and pons

Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?

oxidative phosphorylation

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to _________.

secrete surfactant

Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state?

absorption of glucose from the GI tract

The primary function of cellular respiration is to _________.

break down food molecules and generate ATP

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

plicae circulare and intestinal villi

Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?

number of red blood cells

It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because __________.

most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?

tongue

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ___________.

diffusion

the lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the _________.

vital capacity

Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?

eggs,milk, yogurt, meat and fish

The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the summ of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.

Dalton's Law

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to __________.

collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.

mesenteries

Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ___________.

glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors

Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?

synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

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