Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance?
Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.
Select the correct statement about absorption.
If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.
When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body temperature is below that level, the person may _______.
Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the _________.
ciliated mucous lining in the nose
Which of the choices below is not a mechanism of heat production?
How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
Dietary fats are important because they ____________.
help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins
Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria?
Anabolism includes reactions in which _____________.
larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by _______.
Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
Chyme is created in the ___________.
In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except _______________.
production of energy
Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin saturation?
Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?
aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs
Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
The term metabolism is best defined as ________.
biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy
The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ___________.
The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ___________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.
The amount of ___________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR.
Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized?
Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a _________________.
decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.
is longer than the small intestine
From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
The nose serves all the following functions except ________.
as the initiator of the cough reflex
Which of the following is not a function of LDLs?
transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver
Which of these is not a component of saliva?
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.
increase of carbon dioxide
Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?
the function of the goblet cells is to _______________.
produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
The erythrocytes count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ___________.
concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
The ___________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.
What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.
Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?
There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs _______.
before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?
Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.
alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, had importance in the body because it _________.
is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones
The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ___________.
Respiratory control centers are located in ____________.
medulla and pons
Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to _________.
Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state?
absorption of glucose from the GI tract
The primary function of cellular respiration is to _________.
break down food molecules and generate ATP
The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
plicae circulare and intestinal villi
Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?
number of red blood cells
It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because __________.
most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ___________.
the lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the _________.
Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?
eggs,milk, yogurt, meat and fish
The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the summ of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.
The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to __________.
collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ___________.
glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors
Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?
synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins