Psychology-Ch. 4-The Nature of Consciousness

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The Nature of Consciousness

William James

described the mind as a stream of consciousness

stream of consciousness

a continuous flow of changing sensations, images, thoughts, and feelings

awareness and arousal

We can define consciousness in terms of its two parts?

Consciousness

is an individual's awareness of external events and internal sensations under a condition of arousal.

Awareness

includes awareness of the self and one's thoughts about one's experiences.

metacognition

refers to thinking about thinking

Awareness

Consider that on an autumn afternoon, when you see a beautiful tree, vibrant with color, you are not simply perceiving the colors EXAMPLE OF?

arousal

the physiological state of being engaged with the environment.

Awareness

the subjective state of being conscious of what is going on.

Awareness

Aspect of consciousness that typically involves the cerebral cortex, especially its association areas and frontal lobes

Arousal

is a physiological state determined by the reticular activating system, a network of structures including the brain stem, medulla, and thalamus

coma.

Damage to either the cerebral cortex or the reticular activating system may cause a .........

higher-level consciousness, lower-level consciousness, altered states of consciousness, subconscious awareness, and no awareness

five levels of awareness?

Controlled Processing

the most alert states of human consciousness, individuals actively focus their efforts toward a goal

Controlled Processing

observe a classmate as he struggles to master the unfamiliar buttons on his new 10-function cell phone. He does not hear you humming or notice the intriguing shadow on the wall. His state of focused awareness illustrates the idea of ?

Controlled Processing

level of awareness that requires selective attention

selective attention

the ability to concentrate on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others

higher-level consciousness/Controlled processing

Which level of awareness involves controlled processing?

higher-level consciousness/Controlled processing

Which level of awareness? Doing a math or science problem

higher-level consciousness/Controlled processing

Which level of awareness? preparing for a debate

higher-level consciousness/Controlled processing

Which level of awareness? taking an at-bat in a baseball game

automatic processes and daydreaming.

Lower levels of awareness include.....

automatic processes

A few weeks after acquiring his cell phone, your classmate flips it open and sends a text message in the middle of a conversation with you. He does not have to concentrate on the keys and hardly seems aware of the gadget in his hand as he continues to talk to you while finishing his lunch. Using his cell phone has reached the point of?

automatic processes

are states of consciousness that require little attention and do not interfere with other ongoing activities.

automatic processes

require less conscious effort than controlled processes

lower

When we are awake, our automatic behaviors occur at a ______level of awareness than controlled processes, but they are still conscious behaviors.

Daydreaming

lies between active consciousness and dreaming while asleep

Daydreaming

It is a little like dreaming while we are awake.

Daydreaming

usually begin spontaneously when we are doing something that requires less than our full attention.

Daydreaming

Mind wandering is probably the most obvious type of what?

Daydreaming

keeps our minds active while helping us to cope, create, and fantasize

Altered states of consciousness or awareness

are mental states that are noticeably different from normal awareness.

Altered states of consciousness or awareness

can range from losing one's sense of self-consciousness to hallucinating.

Altered states of consciousness or awareness

This states can be produced by drugs, trauma, fever, fatigue, sensory deprivation, meditation, and possibly hypnosis

awareness

When we are awake, processes are going on just below the surface of .....

Subconscious Awareness

while you are grappling with a problem, the solution may just pop into your head. EXAMPLE OF?

conscious processing

occurs in sequence and is slower than much subconscious processing.

low levels of consciousness.

sleep and dreams are not best regarded as the absence of consciousness, Rather, they are....

unconscious

generally applies to someone who has been knocked out by a blow or anesthetized, or who has fallen into a deep, prolonged unconscious state

Unconscious thought

Sigmund Freud states ______ is a reservoir of unacceptable wishes, feelings, and thoughts that are beyond conscious awareness.

unconscious

Freud's interpretation viewed the ______ as a storehouse for vile thoughts.

Sigmund Freud

He believed that some aspects of our experience remain unconscious for good reason, as if we are better off not knowing about them.

Sigmund Freud

For example, from ______ perspective, the human mind is full of disturbing impulses such as a desire to have sex with our parents.

nonconscious

Recently, researchers have found that many mental processes (thoughts, emotions, and perceptions) can occur outside of awareness. Some psychologists term these processes.....

Metacognition

refers to thinking about thinking. The awareness of thinking about something can have survival benefits.

consciousness

refers to a person's awareness of external events and internal sensations.

consciousness

A sleeping person is not in the same state of _____ as when they are awake

consciousness

Neuroscientists do not believe there is a specific place in the brain for ______. They believe there are separate processing systems that connect to produce it.

Awareness

state of consciousness that typically takes place in the cerebral cortex.

arousal

state of consciousness that occurs in the brain stem, medulla, and thalamus.

Controlled processes

are the most alert states of consciousness.

Higher-Level Consciousness

At this level, individuals actively direct their attention toward a goal.

automatic processes

of lower-level awareness are states of consciousness that require little attention and do not interfere with other activities.

Daydreaming

lies between active consciousness and dreaming while asleep.

Daydreaming

Mind wandering is the most well known type of......

Daydreaming

can be useful in that in this state a person may be making plans, solving problems, or coming up with a creative idea.

Altered states of consciousness

are mental states that are noticeably different from normal awareness.

Altered states of consciousness

can be brought about through drugs, trauma, fatigue, sensory deprivation, and possibly hypnosis.

subconscious awareness

During wakefulness, processes are occurring just below the surface of awareness. CALLED?

sleep and dreaming

During ___ AND ___, the level of awareness is below what it is during daydreaming.

unconscious

When a person is _____, he or she has normally been knocked out by a blow or is under anesthesia.

unconscious thought

Sigmund Freud believed that ____ _______ was where a person keeps unacceptable wishes, feelings, and thoughts that are beyond their awareness.

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