Psychology- CH. 4 Psychoactive Drugs

Created by flbeachbabe 

Upgrade to
remove ads

149 terms · Psychoactive Drugs

Psychoactive Drugs

act on the nervous system to alter consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.

tolerance

Continued use of psychoactive drugs leads to......

tolerance

the need to take increasing amounts of a drug to get the same effect

tolerance

the first time someone takes 5 milligrams of the tranquilizer Valium, the person feels very relaxed. However, after taking the pill every day for six months, the individual may need to consume twice as much to achieve the same calming effect. example of?

physical dependence

the physiological need for a drug that causes unpleasant withdrawal symptoms such as physical pain and a craving for the drug when it is discontinued.

Psychological dependence

is the strong desire to repeat the use of a drug for emotional reasons, such as a feeling of well-being and reduction of stress.

addiction

Experts on drug abuse use the term ______ to describe either a physical or psychological dependence, or both, on the drug

Psychoactive drugs

THESE increase dopamine levels in the brain's reward pathways

ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc)

THE REWARD PATHWAY THAT INCREASE DOPAMINE LEVELS IN PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS IS LOCATED IN?

limbic and prefrontal; VTA

Only the ___ AND ____areas of the brain are directly activated by dopamine, which comes from the ____

reward pathway; dopamine

Although different drugs have different mechanisms of action, each drug increases the activity of the ______ by increasing ____ transmission.

ventral tegmental area (VTA); nucleus accumbens (NAc); VTA ; NAc; prefrontal cortex; VTA; NAc

The _____and ____are important locations in the reward pathway for psychoactive drugs. Information travels from the ____to the _____ and then up to the ____. The ____ is located in the midbrain just above the pons, and the ____ is located in the forebrain, just beneath the prefrontal cortex.

depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens

Three main categories of psychoactive drugs are....... WHICH . All have the potential to cause health or behavior problems or both.

depressants

are psychoactive drugs that slow down mental and physical activity.

alcohol, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and opiates.

Among the most widely used depressants are.....

gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA),

Alcohol also increases the concentration of the neurotransmitter _____ which is widely distributed in many brain areas, including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (

frontal cortex

Researchers believe that the ___ holds a memory of the pleasure involved in prior alcohol use and contributes to continued drinking.

judgment and impulse control

Alcohol consumption also may affect the areas of the frontal cortex involved in ___ AND ___

basal ganglia

It is further believed that the ____, which are involved in compulsive behaviors, may lead to a greater demand for alcohol, regardless of reason and consequences

alcohol

After caffeine, THIS is the most widely used drug in the United States

Alcoholism

is the third leading killer in the United States.

Alcoholism

is a disorder that involves long-term, repeated, uncontrolled, compulsive, and excessive use of alcoholic beverages and that impairs the drinker's health and social relationships.

Barbiturates

Nembutal and Seconal are considered?

Barbiturates

are depressant drugs that decrease central nervous system activity.

Barbiturates

Physicians once widely prescribed THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG as sleep aids.

Barbiturates

In heavy dosages, they can lead to impaired memory and decision making.

Barbiturates

When combined with alcohol (for example, sleeping pills taken after a night of binge drinking), THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG can be lethal.

Barbiturates

are the drug most often used in suicide attempts.

Barbiturates

Abrupt OF THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG withdrawal can produce seizures. Because of the addictive potential and relative ease of toxic overdose,THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG have largely been replaced by tranquilizers in the treatment of insomnia.

Tranquilizers

Valium and Xanax, ARE WHAT KIND OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG?

Tranquilizers

are depressant drugs that reduce anxiety and induce relaxation.

Tranquilizers

In small doses THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG can induce a feeling of calm; higher doses can lead to drowsiness and confusion.

Tranquilizers

Tolerance for THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG can develop within a few weeks of usage, and these drugs are addictive.

Tranquilizers

Widely prescribed in the United States to calm anxious individuals, THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG can produce withdrawal symptoms when use is stopped

Opiates

consist of opium and its derivatives and depress the central nervous system's activity.

Opiates

ALSO KNOWN AS NARCOTICS

Opiates

These drugs are used as powerful painkillers.

Opiates

The most common OF THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG ARE morphine and heroin

Opiates

THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG affect synapses in the brain that use endorphins as their neurotransmitter

Opiates

When these drugs leave the brain, the affected synapses become understimulated.

Opiates

For several hours after taking THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG the person feels euphoric and pain-free and has an increased appetite for food and sex.

Opiates

THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG are highly addictive, and users experience craving and painful withdrawal when the drug becomes unavailable.

Stimulants

are psychoactive drugs that increase the central nervous system's activity.

caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine.

The most widely used stimulants are ......

caffeine

is the world's most widely used psychoactive drug.

caffeine

is a stimulant and a natural component of the plants that are the sources of coffee, tea, and cola drinks.

caffeine

is present in chocolate, in many nonprescription medications, and in energy drinks such as Red Bull.

caffeine

People often perceive the stimulating effects of THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG as beneficial for boosting energy and alertness, but some experience unpleasant side effects.

Caffeinism

refers to an overindulgence in caffeine.

Caffeinism

THIS is characterized by mood changes, anxiety, and sleep disruption.

Caffeinism

THIS often develops in people who drink five or more cups of coffee (at least 500 milligrams) each day.

Caffeinism

Common symptoms OF THIS are insomnia, irritability, headaches, ringing ears, dry mouth, increased blood pressure, and digestive problems

caffeine

affects the brain's pleasure centers, so it is not surprising that it is difficult to kick the THIS habit.

caffeine

When individuals who regularly consume beverages WITH THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG from their diet, they typically experience headaches, lethargy, apathy, and concentration difficulties. These symptoms of withdrawal are usually mild and subside after several days.

Nicotine

is the main psychoactive ingredient in all forms of smoking and smokeless tobacco.

Nicotine

stimulates the brain's reward centers by raising dopamine levels.

Nicotine

Behavioral effects of THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG include improved attention and alertness, reduced anger and anxiety, and pain relief

Nicotine

Tolerance develops for THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG both in the long run and on a daily basis, so that cigarettes smoked later in the day have less effect than those smoked earlier.

Nicotine

Withdrawal from THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG often quickly produces strong, unpleasant symptoms such as irritability, craving, inability to focus, sleep disturbance, and increased appetite. Withdrawal symptoms can persist for months or longer.

Amphetamines

or uppers, are stimulant drugs that people use to boost energy, stay awake, or lose weight.

Amphetamines

Often prescribed in the form of diet pills, these drugs increase the release of dopamine, which enhances the user's activity level and pleasurable feelings.

crystal methamphetamine

Perhaps the most insidious illicit drug for contemporary society is......

crystal methamphetamine

Smoked, injected, or swallowed THIS AMPHETAMINE is a synthetic stimulant that causes a powerful feeling of euphoria, particularly the first time it is ingested.

crystal methamphetamine

is made using household products such as battery acid, cold medicine, drain cleaner, and kitty litter, and its effects have been devastating, notably in rural areas of the United States.

crystal methamphetamine

releases enormous amounts of dopamine in the brain, producing intense feelings of pleasure. The drug is highly addictive. The extreme high of THIS AMPHETAMINE leads to a severe "come down" experience that is associated with strong cravings.

Cocaine

is an illegal drug that comes from the coca plant, native to Bolivia and Peru.

Cocaine

is either snorted or injected in the form of crystals or powder. Used this way, THIS AMPHETAMINE floods the bloodstream rapidly, producing a rush of euphoric feelings that lasts for about 15 to 30 minutes.

Cocaine

Because the rush of THIS AMPHETAMINE depletes the brain's supply of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, an agitated, depressed mood usually follows as the drug's effects decline.

Crack

is a potent form of cocaine, consisting of chips of pure cocaine that are usually smoked.

Cocaine

addictive properties to THIS AMPHETAMINE are so strong that, six months after treatment, more than 50 percent of abusers return to the drug, a statistic that highlights the importance of prevention.

MDMA

called Ecstasy, X, or XTC

MDMA (Ecstasy)

is an illegal synthetic drug with both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties.

MDMA (Ecstasy)

People have called THIS AMPHETAMINE an "empathogen" because under its influence, users tend to feel warm bonds with others.

MDMA (Ecstasy)

produces its effects by releasing serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.

MDMA (Ecstasy)

The effects of the drug on serotonin are particularly problematic because it depletes the brain of this important neurotransmitter, producing lingering feelings of listlessness that often continue for days after

MDMA (Ecstasy)

impairs memory and cognitive processing.

MDMA (Ecstasy)

Heavy users of THIS AMPHETAMINE show cognitive deficits that persist even two years after they begin to abstain

MDMA (Ecstasy)

Because THIS AMPHETAMINE destroys axons that release serotonin, repeated use might lead to susceptibility to depression

Hallucinogens

are psychoactive drugs that modify a person's perceptual experiences and produce visual images that are not real.

Hallucinogens

are also called psychedelic drugs.

Marijuana

is the dried leaves and flowers of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, which originated in Central Asia but is now grown in most parts of the world.

hashish

The plant's dried resin is known as....

Marijuana

The active ingredient in THIS DRUG is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol).

THC ; Marijuana

Unlike other psychoactive drugs, _____does not affect a specific neurotransmitter. Rather, _____disrupts the membranes of neurons and affects the functioning of a variety of neurotransmitters and hormones.

Marijuana

The physical effects of THIS DRUG include increased pulse rate and blood pressure, reddening of the eyes, coughing, and dry mouth.

Marijuana

Psychological effects OF THIS DRUG include a mixture of excitatory, depressive, and mildly hallucinatory characteristics that make it difficult to classify the drug.

Marijuana

can trigger spontaneous unrelated ideas; distorted perceptions of time and place; increased sensitivity to sounds, tastes, smells, and colors; and erratic verbal behavior. The drug can also impair attention and memory.

Marijuana

when used daily in large amounts, THIS DRUG can alter sperm count and change hormonal cycles

Marijuana

is the illegal drug most widely used by high school students.

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

is a hallucinogen that even in low doses produces striking perceptual changes

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

Objects change their shapes and glow. Colors become kaleidoscopic and astonishing images unfold. WHICH DRUG?

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

images are sometimes pleasurable and sometimes grotesque. WHICH DRUG?

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

can influence a user's sense of time so that brief glances at objects are experienced as deep, penetrating, and lengthy examinations, and minutes turn into hours or even days. WHICH DRUG?

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

A bad trip WITH THIS DRUG can trigger extreme anxiety, paranoia, and suicidal or homicidal impulses.

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

THIS DRUG effects on the body can include dizziness, nausea, and tremors and acts primarily on the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain, though it also can affect dopamine

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

Emotional and cognitive effects of this drug may include rapid mood swings and impaired attention and memory.

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

The use of THIS DRUG peaked in the 1960s and 1970s, and its consumption has been decreasing in the twenty-first century

Psychoactive drugs

are substances that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.

tolerant

When a person has to take more and more of a given drug to achieve the same desired effect, they have become ....

Physical dependence

is the physiological need for a specific drug. Without that drug the person exhibits withdrawal symptoms.

Psychological dependence

is a strong desire to repeat the use of a particular drug for emotional reasons.

addiction

For drug use to be considered an_______ there has to be a physical and/or psychological dependence on the drug.

dopamine;ventral tegmental area (VTA); nucleus accumbens (NAc);

Psychoactive drugs cause an increase in ______ levels in the brain's reward system pathways, especially in the ____ and the______, the centers of the brain implicated in pleasure.

Depressants

low down mental and physical activity.

alcohol

acts as a depressant and slows down the brain's activity. People may act more free and loosen up a bit, because the area of the brain involved in inhibition and judgment slows down.

alcohol

Activities that involve intellectual functioning and motor skills become impaired under the influence of.....

frontal cortex

Researchers believe that the____ holds in memory the pleasure involved in prior alcohol use and therefore contributes to continued drinking.

alcohol

Next to caffeine, _____ is the most widely used drug in the United States.

Alcoholism

involves long-term, repeated, uncontrolled, compulsive, and excessive use of alcoholic beverages that impairs the drinker's health and social relationships.

alcoholics

Fifty to 60 percent of people who become _____ do so because of some genetic disposition.

Alcoholism

The genetic disposition to ____ may be because the brains of these genetically predisposed people may be unable to produce enough dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is implicated in pleasure.

Alcoholism

Recovery from _____ is predictable by someone's (1) having strong negative experiences with drinking, (2) finding a healthy substitute dependency, (3) developing new positive relationships, and (4) joining a support group such as Alcoholics Anonymous.

barbiturates

is a depressant drug that decreases the level of activity of the central nervous system.

barbiturates

were originally prescribed as sleep aids.

barbiturates

With increased usage, _____ can lead to impaired memory and decision making.

Tranquilizers

are depressants that reduce anxiety and induce relaxation.

Tranquilizers

are usually prescribed to calm an anxious, nervous person.

opiates

consisting of opium, depress the central nervous system's activity.

opiates

The way ____ work is that when they leave the brain, the synapses become under stimulated.

opiates

For many hours after taking _____, a person may feel euphoric and pain-free and have an increased desire for food and sex.

Stimulants

work by increasing the level of activity in the central nervous system.

Caffeine

is the world's most widely used drug

caffeinism

term that is used to refer to an overindulgence in caffeine.

caffeinism

This condition brings about mood changes, anxiety, and sleep disruption. It usually occurs in people who drink five or more cups of coffee a day.

nicotine

is the main psychoactive ingredient in all forms of smoking and smokeless tobacco.

nicotine

is highly addictive. It stimulates the brain's reward centers by raising their dopamine levels.

nicotine

The behavioral effects of______include improving attention and alertness, reducing anger and anxiety, and providing pain relief.

Amphetamines

are also known as uppers. People use them to boost energy, stay awake, or lose weight. They are often prescribed as diet pills.

Amphetamines

increase the release of dopamine, which enhances the user's activity level and causes pleasurable effects.

Crystal meth

is probably the most insidious illicit drug. It causes a strong euphoric feeling, especially the first time it is taken.

Cocaine

comes from the coca plant. It is either snorted or injected in the form of crystals or powder.

Cocaine

enters the bloodstream quickly, producing a rush of euphoric feelings that lasts for about 15 to 30 minutes.

Crack

a potent form of cocaine, is believed to be one of the most addictive substances known—more so than heroine, barbiturates, and alcohol.

Hallucinogens

modify a person's perceptual experiences and produce visual images that are not real.

Marijuana

comes from the dried leaves and flowers of the hemp plant.

Marijuana

The active ingredient IN THIS DRUG Tetrahydrocannabinol THC

Marijuana

THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT IN THIS DRUG does not affect A specific neurotransmitter, but it does disrupt the membranes of neurons and affects the functioning of many neurotransmitters and hormones.

Marijuana

The physical effects of _____include an increase in pulse rate and blood pressure, a reddening of the eyes, coughing, and dryness of the mouth.

Marijuana

Psychological effects associated with ____ include a mixture of excitatory, depressive, and mildly hallucinatory characteristics that make it difficult to classify this drug.

Marijuana

an impair attention and memory. When used in large amounts, it can alter sperm count and change hormonal cycles.

Marijuana

is the drug most widely used by high school students.

MDMA (Ecstasy)

Methylendioxymethlamphetamine is.....

MDMA (Ecstasy)

has both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties.

MDMA

street names include Ecstasy, X, XTC, hug, beans, and the love drug.

MDMA (Ecstasy)

has adverse effects on memory and cognitive processing.

D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

When using ____, objects can appear to change their shape and to glow. Colors become like a kaleidoscope, and amazing images unfold. Time seems to slow down.

LSD

D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide is....

D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

effects on the body include dizziness, nausea, and tremors.

D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

acts primarily on the neurotransmitter serotonin, but it can also affect dopamine.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set