Psychology-Ch. 11 Social Cognition

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Social Cognition

Social psychology

is the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to other people.

Social cognition

is the area of social psychology that explores how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information

Person perception

refers to the processes by which we use social stimuli to form impressions of others

stereotype

is a generalization about a group's characteristics that does not consider any variations from one individual to another.

stereotype

are a natural extension of the limits on human cognitive processing and our reliance on concepts in cognitive processing

stereotype

when we categorize an individual, that categorization often reflects

self-fulfilling prophecy

a phenomenon where expectations cause individuals to act in ways that serve to make the expectations come true.

Self-fulfilling prophecy

show the potential power of stereotypes and other sources of expectations on human behavior.

attribution

The process by which we come to understand the causes of others' behavior and form an impression of them as individuals is called....

Attribution theory

theory that views people as motivated to discover the underlying causes of behavior as part of their effort to make sense of the behavior.

Internal/external causes, Stable/unstable causes, Controllable/uncontrollable causes

Attributions vary along three dimensions which are....

Internal ATTRIBUTION

DIMENSION OF ATTRIBUTIONS: WHICH ONE? include causes inside and specific to the person, such as his or her traits and abilities.

External attributions

DIMENSION OF ATTRIBUTIONS: WHICH ONE? include causes outside the person, such as social pressure, aspects of the social situation, and the weather.

Internal/external causes

DIMENSION OF ATTRIBUTIONS: EXAMPLE OF? Did Beth get an A on the test because she is smart or because the test was easy?

Stable/unstable causes

DIMENSION OF ATTRIBUTIONS: EXAMPLE OF? Is the cause relatively enduring and permanent, or is it temporary?

Stable/unstable causes

DIMENSION OF ATTRIBUTIONS: EXAMPLE OF? Did Aaron blow up at his girlfriend because he is a hostile guy or because he was in a bad mood that day?

Controllable/uncontrollable causes

DIMENSION OF ATTRIBUTIONS: WHICH ONE? We perceive that we have power over some causes, but not others.

Controllable/uncontrollable causes

DIMENSION OF ATTRIBUTIONS: EXAMPLE OF? preparing delicious food for a picnic, rain on picnic day

actor.

In attribution theory, the person who produces the behavior to be explained is called the ......

observer

In attribution theory, the person who offers a causal explanation of the actor's behavior is called the .....

external causes.

In attribution theory, Actors often explain their own behavior in terms of .....

internal causes.

In attribution theory, observers frequently explain the actor's behavior in terms of ....

fundamental attribution error

observers overestimate the importance of internal traits and underestimate the importance of external situations when they seek explanations of an actor's behavior is called?

fundamental attribution error

news coverage of Hurricane Katrina conveyed grim images of individuals who had not evacuated and were left homeless and helpless in the storm's aftermath. An observer might have concluded, "They were foolish not to get out in time." In fact, situational factors, including lacking financial resources or a means of transportation, may have prevented them from leaving. EXAMPLE OF?

Heuristics

cognitive shortcuts that allow us to make decisions rapidly.

false consensus effect

is the overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way we do and can be important in social interactions.

false consensus effect

Someone in a group to which you belong makes a racially insensitive remark and that person interprets silence on the part of others in the group as agreement. EXAMPLE OF?

self-esteem

the degree to which we have positive or negative feelings about ourselves

positive illusions

Individuals with high self-esteem often possess a variety of .....

positive illusions

favorable views of themselves that are not necessarily rooted in reality.

Self-serving bias

refers to the tendency to take credit for our successes and to deny responsibility for our failures.

Stereotype threat

is an individual's fast-acting, self-fulfilling fear of being judged based on a negative stereotype about his or her group.

stereotype threat

A person who experiences ________ is well aware of stereotypical expectations for him or her as a member of the group.

Social comparison

the process by which we evaluate our thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and abilities in relation to others.

Social comparison

helps us to evaluate ourselves, tells us what our distinctive characteristics are, and aids us in building an identity.

Social comparison theory

According to this theory, when we lack objective means to evaluate our opinions and abilities, we compare ourselves with others. Furthermore, to get an accurate appraisal of ourselves, we are most likely to compare ourselves with others who are similar to us.

Attitudes

are our feelings or opinions about people, objects, and ideas.

When the person's attitudes are strong

senators whose attitudes toward the president are "highly favorable" are more likely to vote for the president's policies than are senators who have only "moderately favorable" attitudes toward the chief executive.EXAMPLE OF WHICH ATTITUDES THAT PREDICT BEHAVIOR?

When the person shows a strong awareness of his or her attitudes and when the person rehearses and practices them

a person who has been asked to give a speech about the benefits of recycling is more likely to recycle than is an individual with the same attitude about recycling who has not put the idea into words or defined it in public.EXAMPLE OF WHICH ATTITUDES THAT PREDICT BEHAVIOR?

When the person has a vested interest

a classic study examined whether students would show up for a rally protesting a change that would raise the legal drinking age from 18 to 21. Although students in general were against the change, only those in the critical age group (from 18 to 20) turned out to protest.EXAMPLE OF WHICH ATTITUDES THAT PREDICT BEHAVIOR?

When the person has a vested interest

People are more likely to act on attitudes when the issue at stake will affect them personally.EXAMPLE OF WHICH ATTITUDES THAT PREDICT BEHAVIOR?

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

a concept developed by Festinger (1957), is an individual's psychological discomfort (dissonance) caused by two inconsistent thoughts.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

According to the theory, we feel uneasy when we notice an inconsistency between what we believe and what we do.

change our behavior to fit our attitudes or change our attitudes to fit our behavior.

We can reduce cognitive dissonance in one of two ways?

Effort justification

one type of dissonance reduction, means rationalizing the amount of effort we put into something.

Effort justification

explains strong feelings of loyalty toward a group based on the effort it takes to get into that group.

Self-Perception Theory

is Daryl Bem's (1967) explanation of how behaviors influence attitudes.

Self-Perception Theory

According to this theory, individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their behavior. That is, behaviors can cause attitudes because when we are questioned about our attitudes, we think back on our behaviors for information.

Persuasion

involves trying to change someone's attitude—and often his or her behavior as well.

elaboration likelihood model.

One model that seeks to explain how different aspects of appeals influence persuasion is the...

a central route and a peripheral route

elaboration likelihood model theory identifies two ways to persuade......

a central route

elaboration likelihood model theory ways to persuade that works by engaging someone thoughtfully, with a sound, logical argument.

a peripheral route

elaboration likelihood model theory ways to persuade that involves non-message factors such as the source's credibility and attractiveness or emotional appeals.

a peripheral route

elaboration likelihood model theory ways to persuade that is effective when people are not paying close attention to or do not have the time or energy to think about the message.

a peripheral route

Television advertisers often use the which route to persuasion on the assumption that during commercials, you are probably not paying full attention to the screen.

central route

elaboration likelihood model theory ways to persuade that is more persuasive when people have the ability and the motivation to pay attention to the facts

Social Cognition

is the area of psychology that examines how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information.

Person perception

refers to the processes by which people use social stimuli to form their impressions of others.

social perceiver.

People judge others by their looks. The face can tell a lot about someone to a .....

Attractive

________ individuals are thought to be better adjusted, socially skilled, friendly, likable, extraverted, and more likely to achieve superior job performance.

attractive; unattractive

Research has shown that even three- to six-month-old infants prefer to look at ____ faces vs. ____ ones.

Stereotypes

are generalizations about a group's characteristics that do vary from one individual to the next.

Stereotypes

are used to simplify our understanding of people by classifying them as belonging to one group or another.

self-fulfilling prophecy

an individual's expectations cause him or her to act in ways that serve to make those expectations come true.

primacy effect

is an individual's tendency to attend to and remember what was learned first.

judgment

A recent study shows that _____ is made after about 100 millisecond of exposure time to an unfamiliar face.

attribution theory

views individuals as motivated to discover the underlying causes of behavior as part of their effort to make sense of the behavior.

internal/external

In attribution theory, which cause includes all causes internal to the person and includes all causes external to the person?

stable/unstable

In attribution theory, which cause arises as an individual perceives the cause of a given behavior to be stable or unstable.

controllable/uncontrollable

In attribution theory, which cause relates to whether a cause is perceived as controllable or uncontrollable.

fundamental attribution error

occurs when the importance of internal traits is overestimated and the importance of external situations is underestimated.

personalities; situation

Most individuals tend to explain behavior in terms of the_______ of the people involved rather than the ________of the people.

Heuristics

are social shortcuts that allow individuals to make decisions rapidly.

false consensus effect

is an overestimation of the degree to which everyone else thinks or acts the way an individual does.

false consensus effect

This effect is the result of an individual's using his or her own outlook to predict that of others.

self-esteem

One of the most important self-related variables is....

self-esteem

the degree to which an individual has a positive or negative attitude about themselves.

positive illusion

is a positive view that individuals have about themselves that is not necessarily rooted in reality.

positive illusion

Most people tend to think of themselves as above average in a variety of positive characteristics. EXAMPLE OF?

self-serving bias

refers to the tendency to take credit for success but deny responsibility for failures.

Self-objectification

refers to the tendency of an individual to see himself or herself primarily as an object in the eyes of others.

stereotype threat

is an individual's fast-acting, self-fulfilling fear about being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype about his or her group.

stereotype threat

has been shown to have a negative effect on women taking a math test compared to men with equally strong math training.

Social comparison

is the process by which individuals evaluate their thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and abilities in relation to other people.

Social comparison

Individuals are more likely to compare themselves to others similar to them. EXAMPLE OF?

Attitudes

are how individuals feel about things, their opinions and beliefs.

WHEN an individual's behavior will change his or her attitude

When the person's attitudes are strong. EXAMPLE OF?

WHEN an individual's behavior will change his or her attitude

When the person shows a strong awareness of his or her attitudes and rehearses and practices them. EXAMPLE OF?

WHEN an individual's behavior will change his or her attitude

When the person's attitudes are relevant to the behavior. EXAMPLE OF?

WHEN an individual's behavior will change his or her attitude

When the person has a vested interest in the issue. EXAMPLE OF?

attitudes.

Research has shown that changes in behavior sometimes precede changes in....

Theory of Cognitive Dissonance

occurs when an individual's psychological discomfort is caused by two inconsistent thoughts—what that individual does and what he or she says they believe are inconsistent.

Theory of Cognitive Dissonance

To escape the tension, the individual can either change his or her attitude or actions. The individual will try to justify his or her actions or change attitude before changing behavior. THIS IS CALLED?

Effort justification

can be explained by saying that goals requiring a lot of effort are the ones that come to be valued the most.

cognitive dissonance; Effort justification

If a great deal of effort is put forth yet the goal is still not reached, __________ occurs. THIS IS CALLED?

self-perception theory

stresses that individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their behavior.

self-perception theory

In this theory, Behaviors can cause attitudes.

Persuasion

occurs when individuals try to change another's attitudes.

The Communicator (the Source)

aspect of persuasion, whether or not someone is believable depends on their expertise or credibility. KNOWN AS?

The Message

aspect of persuasion, Emotional appeals are quite powerful. Negative appeals play to the audience's emotions. KNOWN AS?

emotional appeal.

The less informed an audience, the more likely they will respond to an....

medium

aspect of persuasion, refers to how a message is presented, meaning the type of technology used. KNOWN AS?

The Target

aspect of persuasion, age and attitude strengths are two characteristics of an audience that can determine whether or not a message will be effective. KNOWN AS?

The Target

aspect of persuasion, Younger people are more likely to change their attitudes than older ones. KNOWN AS?

elaboration likelihood model

explains the relationship between the rational and emotional aspects of appeals.

elaboration likelihood model

It describes two ways to persuade: one is a central route, which engages someone thoughtfully, the other a peripheral route, which involves such nonmessage factors as the credibility and attractiveness of the presenter.

central route

aspect of persuasion-elaboration likelihood model, the route which engages someone thoughtfully

a peripheral route

aspect of persuasion-elaboration likelihood model, the route which involves such nonmessage factors as the credibility and attractiveness of the presenter.

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